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Article 4 — Site Planning and General Development Standards

Chapter 17.40 - General Property Development and Use Standards

17.40.010 - Purpose of Chapter
17.40.020 - Applicability
17.40.030 - Development on an Undeveloped Lot
17.40.040 - Development on a Substandard Lot
17.40.050 - Flag Lot Development Standards
17.40.055 - Development on Lots Divided by District Boundaries
17.40.060 - Height Requirements and Exceptions
17.40.070 - Limited Hours of Operation
17.40.080 - Outdoor Lighting
17.40.090 - Performance Standards
17.40.100 - Public Art Requirements and Design Standards
17.40.110 - Reflective Surfaces
17.40.120 - Refuse Storage Facilities
17.40.130 - Relocated Structures
17.40.140 - Remodeling of Single-Family Residences
17.40.150 - Screening
17.40.160 - Setback and Encroachment Plane Requirements and Exceptions
17.40.170 - Truck Trip Limitations
17.40.180 - Walls and Fences
17.40.190 - Underground Utilities

Chapter 17.42 - Inclusionary Housing Requirements

17.42.010 - Purpose of Chapter
17.42.020 - Applicability and Exempt Projects
17.42.030 - Definitions
17.42.040 - Inclusionary Unit Requirements
17.42.050 - Alternatives to Units within Project
17.42.060 - Housing Plan and Housing Agreement Required
17.42.070 - Standards
17.42.080 - Enforcement
17.42.090 - Takings Determination
17.42.100 - Inclusionary Housing Trust Fund
17.42.110 - Administrative Fees
17.42.120 - Appeal
 

Chapter 17.43 - Density Bonus, Waivers and Incentives

17.43.010 - Purpose of Chapter
17.43.020 - Applicability
17.43.030 - Definitions
17.43.040 - Density Bonus Allowance
17.43.050 - Concessions and other Incentives
17.43.060 - Waiver of Development Standards
17.43.070 - Floor Area Bonus and Concessions for Child Day-Care Center
17.43.080 - Bonus for Donation of Land
17.43.090 - Alternative Parking Standards
17.43.100 - Enforcement of Affordability
17.43.110 - Administrative Procedures
 

Chapter 17.44 - Landscaping

17.44.010 - Purpose of Chapter
17.44.020 - Applicability
17.44.030 - Preliminary Landscape Plan
17.44.040 - Final Landscape and Irrigation Plan
17.44.050 - Landscape Documentation Package
17.44.060 - Landscape Location Requirements
17.44.070 - Landscape Standards
17.44.080 - Maintenance of Landscaping
17.44.090 - Tree Retention
17.44.100 - Street Trees

Chapter 17.46 - Parking and Loading

17.46.010 - Purpose of Chapter
17.46.020 - Basic Requirements for Off-Street Parking and Loading
17.46.030 - Zoning Credit Parking Program
17.46.040 - Number of Off-Street Parking Spaces Required
17.46.050 - Shared Parking
17.46.060 - Participation in Public Parking Assessment District
17.46.070 - Reduced Parking in Senior Citizens' Housing Developments
17.46.080 - Tandem Parking
17.46.090 - Compact Parking Spaces Prohibited
17.46.100 - Parking Spaces for the Handicapped
17.46.110 - Parking Space Dimensions
17.46.120 - Application of Dimensional Requirements
17.46.130 - Aisle Dimensions
17.46.140 - Parking Access from Street
17.46.150 - Driveway Design, Widths, and Clearances
17.46.160 - Driveway Configuration for Multi-Family Projects
17.46.170 - Driveway Visibility
17.46.180 - Driveway Location and Frequency for Multi-Family Projects
17.46.190 - Garage Door and Grill Standards for Multi-Family Projects
17.46.200 - Driveway Encroachments for Multi-Family Projects
17.46.210 - Parking Area Screening B Walls and Fences
17.46.220 - Outdoor Parking Area Lighting
17.46.230 - Parking Lot Landscaping
17.46.240 - Parking Structure Yards and Landscaping
17.46.250 - Central District Additional Design Standards for Parking
17.46.260 - Number, Location, and Design of Off-Street Loading Spaces
17.46.270 - Ramps
17.46.280 - Driveway Paving for Multi-Family Projects
17.46.290 - Trip Reduction Requirements for Residential and Nonresidential Projects
17.46.300 - Paving
17.46.310 - Electric Recharge Stations
17.46.320 - Bicycle Parking Standards

Chapter 17.48 - Signs

17.48.010 - Purpose
17.48.020 - Applicability
17.48.030 - Building Permit and Design Review Required
17.48.040 - Exempt Signs and Maintenance
17.48.050 - Sign Exceptions
17.48.060 - Master Sign Plan
17.48.070 - Creative Sign Permit
17.48.080 - Regulations For On-Premises Signs
17.48.090 - Sign Standards by Zoning District
17.48.100 - General Provisions for On-Premise Signs
17.48.110 - Standards for Specific Types of Permanent Signs
17.48.115 - Standards for Noncommercial Signs for Residential Uses
17.48.120 - Standards for Temporary Signs
17.48.130 - Prohibited Signs
17.48.140 - Nonconforming Signs
17.48.150 - Abandoned Signs
17.48.160 - Illegal Signs
17.48.170 - Definitions

Chapter 17.40 - General Property Development and Use Standards

Sections:

17.40.010 - Purpose of Chapter
17.40.020 - Applicability
17.40.030 - Development on an Undeveloped Lot
17.40.040 - Development on a Substandard Lot
17.40.050 - Flag Lot Development Standards
17.40.055 - Development on Lots Divided by District Boundaries
17.40.060 - Height Requirements and Exceptions
17.40.070 - Limited Hours of Operation
17.40.080 - Outdoor Lighting
17.40.090 - Performance Standards
17.40.100 - Public Art Requirements and Design Standards
17.40.110 - Reflective Surfaces
17.40.120 - Refuse Storage Facilities
17.40.130 - Relocated Structures
17.40.140 - Remodeling of Single-Family Residences
17.40.150 - Screening
17.40.160 - Setback and Encroachment Plane Requirements and Exceptions
17.40.170 - Truck Trip Limitations
17.40.180 - Walls and Fences
17.40.190 - Underground Utilities

17.40.010 - Purpose of Chapter

This Chapter expands upon the requirements of Article 2 by addressing additional details of site planning, project design, and the operation of land uses, to ensure that proposed development produces an environment of stable and desirable character, is compatible with existing and future development in the vicinity, and protects the use and enjoyment of neighboring properties consistent with the General Plan and any applicable specific plan.

17.40.020 - Applicability

  1. All proposed development and new land uses. The requirements of this Chapter shall apply to all proposed development and new land uses, except as specified in Chapter 17.71 (Nonconforming Uses, Structures, and Lots), and shall be considered in combination with the standards for the applicable zoning district in Articles 2 (Zoning Districts and Allowable Land Uses), 3 (Specific Plan Standards), and 5 (Standards for Specific Land Uses). If there is a conflict, the standards in Article 5 shall control.
  2. Remodeling projects. Whenever more than 50 percent of the exterior walls of a structure are removed, the replacement construction would constitute a new structure that would have to comply with all current development standards of the subject zoning district.

17.40.030 - Development on an Undeveloped Lot

No land use permit shall be approved for a proposed project on an undeveloped lot that was created before March 4, 1972, by means other than a Parcel or Tract Map, unless a Certificate of Compliance is first obtained and recorded with the Los Angeles County Recorder.

17.40.040 - Development on a Substandard Lot

  1. Use of a substandard lot. A legally created substandard lot may be granted the land use permit required by Article 2 for a use allowed by the applicable zoning district without needing a Variance for lot width or area. The development of an illegally created lot is prohibited.
  2. Limitation on Variances for lots of less than 5,000 square feet. If new construction, or an addition to a structure on a lot less than 5,000 square feet, cannot meet the development standards of the applicable zoning district and requires a Variance, the size of the lot may not be used as the sole basis for granting a Variance.

17.40.050 - Flag Lot Development Standards

The following regulations apply to a subdivision where one or more flag lots are proposed, or where an existing flag lot is to be developed with an addition or a new residence.

  1. When allowed. A flag lot shall only be allowed:

    1. On property zoned RS, and only within the Hillside Development (HD) Overlay District (a flag lot shall not be allowed in the HD-1 Overlay District or any other zoning district);
    2. Only if there is no reasonable alternative due to extreme topographic conditions or other physical conditions as determined by the Advisory Agency; and
    3. Only when extreme physical constraints and circumstances are inherent.
    In considering a new flag lot, a conventional subdivision would first have to be possible.
  2. Required procedure.

    1. Subdivision process. A flag lot may be created only through Parcel Map or Tract Map approval; a Lot Line Adjustment shall not be used to create a flag lot.
    2. Conditional Use Permit. The creation of a flag lot shall also require Conditional Use Permit approval by the Advisory Agency, in compliance with Section 17.61.050.
    3. Geotechnical report. A geotechnical report shall be filed for review and approval by the Building and Safety Division attesting to the stability of the site, before consideration of the subdivision map or Conditional Use Permit by the Advisory Agency.
    4. Standards. All lots proposed in flag lot subdivision shall comply with all applicable standards of this Zoning Code, the requirements of the Department, and the requirements of other City departments or divisions including the Department of Public Works, Transportation Department, Fire Department, and the Building Division.
  3. Design standards.

    1. Pole configuration, street frontage. Each flag lot shall be designed to provide a "pole" that functions primarily as an accessway from the street to the main body ("flag" portion) of the lot. Private access easements shall not be allowed. See Figure 4-1.

      1. A minimum 20 feet, and a maximum 25 feet of frontage and width shall be maintained throughout the length of the pole.
      2. Driveways shall meet the minimum requirement of Section 17.29.050.F.1.
      3. The pole portion shall be deemed to end, and the flag portion of the lot shall be deemed to commence, at the extension of the front property line.

        Figure 4-1 — Flat lot components

        Figure 1

        Figure 4-2 — Flag lot width/depth

        Figure 2
    2. Designation of property lines. The following requirements determine the location of the front, side, and rear property lines of a flag lot.

      1. Front property line. The front property line shall be the lot boundary that most nearly parallels the public or private street providing access to the lot, and which abuts the end of the pole, but does not include the pole. If the pole is not at a 90‑degree angle to the front property line, the front property line shall be calculated as if the front property line continued by drawing an imaginary line to the pole.
      2. Side and rear property lines.

        (1) The side property line shall be any lot boundary that does not abut a public or private right-of-way, and which is not a front or rear property line, exclusive of the pole portion of the lot.

        (2) The rear property line shall be the lot boundary opposite the front property line.

    3. Measurement of lot depth. Lot depth shall be measured at the midpoints of the front property line, as defined in Subsection B.3, and the rear property line of the flag portion of the lot. When measuring the depth of a flag lot, the pole shall not be included. See Figure 4-2.
    4. Lot width. The width of the flag portion of a lot shall comply with the minimum standards of the applicable residential base zoning district. See Figure 4-2.

      1. Lot width shall be measured by a line connecting two points on opposite side property lines, that will result in a line parallel to the front property line, as defined in Subsection B.2.
      2. For purposes of measuring the width of a flag lot, the calculation shall not include the pole of the flag lot.
    5. Minimum lot area. The flag portion of a flag lot shall comply with the minimum area and dimensions required by the applicable residential base zoning district.

      1. For purposes of measuring the lot area, only the flag portion shall be considered.
      2. The flag portion of a flag lot shall not include the pole, or any other portion of the lot where lot width is less than the minimum required by the applicable residential base zoning district. Where the pole is not at a 90-degree angle to the front property line abutting the pole, the front property line shall be calculated as if the front property line continued by drawing an imaginary line, which will also illustrate the boundary of the main body of the lot.
    6. Maximum number of lots. The total number of lots in a flag lot subdivision shall comply with the following requirements.

      1. Where the average slope of a site is 15 percent or less, the total maximum allowable number of lots shall be determined by the applicable residential base zoning district.
      2. Where the average slope of a site exceeds 15 percent, the total maximum allowable number of lots shall be determined in compliance with Section 17.29.040 (Hillside Subdivision Design Standards).
  4. Multiple flag lots. Where a subdivision proposes more than one flag lot, the following standards shall apply:

    1. Not more than two flag lot poles shall be contiguous to each other.
    2. The poles of two flag lots that are contiguous shall have a maximum width of 40 feet.
    3. No wall, fence, hedge, or other obstruction, as determined by the Fire Department, shall be constructed or planted within the width of the pole area of the flag lots.
    4. Private access easements shall not be allowed.
    5. Where a total of three or more lots are created, and two are flag lots with poles that are contiguous to each other, the driveway to the nonflag lots shall be separated from the contiguous poles by a minimum five-foot wide landscaped planter.
  5. Development standards for flag lots. Where an addition to a residence on a flag lot is proposed, or where a new residence is proposed on a flag lot, the following standards shall apply:

    1. Construction and development of a single-family residence and related accessory structures on a flag lot shall only occur in the flag portion of the lot.
    2. The maximum gross Floor Area Ratio (FAR) shall be based upon the area of the flag portion of the lot.
    3. Each structure on a flag lot shall be oriented to provide the maximum privacy to surrounding existing and future residential structures.

      1. Large windows and decks on the second floor of a residence on a flag lot shall orient to on-site setback areas and not to surrounding properties.
      2. Other methods for protecting privacy may include using translucent material in (upper floor) windows, eliminating windows, reducing and/or relocating balconies, or eliminating balconies.
    4. The street address of the flag lot shall be placed in a conspicuous location within the pole of the lot that is easily visible from the street.
  6. Required findings for flag lots. The approval of a Conditional Use Permit for flag lots shall require that the Advisory Agency first make all of the following findings, in addition to the findings required for Conditional Use Permit approval in Section 17.61.050.G (Findings and decision):

    1. The proposed flag lot subdivision is the only reasonable subdivision design due to extreme topographic conditions, or other physical and natural constraints of the subject property (e.g., natural drainage course or streams, protected trees, etc);
    2. The design of the proposed flag lot subdivision complies with the flag lot development standards identified in this Section; and
    3. The lots created from the proposed flag lot subdivision do not adversely impact the established neighborhood character nor deviate from the established neighborhood character, which shall consider the scale of the existing lot sizes and lot configurations in the surrounding area. For purposes of this finding, the surrounding area shall mean all properties within a 1,000-foot radius of the subject property's boundary (before subdivision).

17.40.055 – Development on Lots Divided by District Boundaries. 

 A.    Application of Standards.

  1. On a lot or site divided by a zoning district boundary by virtue of Ordinance No. 6096, the owner may elect to apply to the entire lot or site the regulations of the less restrictive district provided the more restrictive portion does not exceed 30 feet measured perpendicular to the district boundary. Otherwise, the regulations applicable to each district shall be applied to the area within each district. For the purposes of this subsection, the Zoning Administrator shall determine which district is less restrictive
  2. On a lot or site that is divided by a zoning district boundary by virtue of a zoning map amendments subsequent to Ordinance No. 6096, the regulations applicable to each district shall be applied to the area within the district.
  1. Parking. Notwithstanding the above provisions, on a lot or site divided by a zoning boundary by virtue of Ordinance No. 6996, a parking lot serving the principal use may be located within the district where such use is not permitted upon approval of a minor conditional use permit.  Pedestrian or vehicular access shall not traverse an adjacent lot that is not in a district in which the use is a permitted or conditionally permitted use.  

17.40.060 - Height Requirements and Exceptions

  1. Purpose. This Section describes the required methods for measuring the height of structures in compliance with the height limits established by this Zoning Code, and exceptions to those height limits.
  2. Maximum height of structures. The height of each structure shall not exceed the height limit established for the applicable zoning district by Article 2 (Zoning Districts and Allowable Land Uses), other provisions of this Article, Article 5 (Standards for Specific Land Uses), or by any height limit (HL) overlay zone (Section 17.28.040), except as otherwise provided by this Section.
  3. Height measurement.

    1. The maximum allowable height of a structure shall be measured from the lowest elevation of the existing grade at an exterior wall of the structure to the highest point of the structure, except as otherwise specified by this Zoning Code. See Figure 4-3.

      Figure 4-3 — Height Measurement

      Figure 4-3

    2. The highest point of the structure shall be considered its highest ridge or parapet.
    3. Where the height limits of the applicable zoning district require measurement to the top plate, the height shall be measured from the lowest elevation of the existing grade at the exterior wall of the structure to the top plate elevation
    4. If a single structure crosses a zoning or height district boundary (e.g., where one structure is located in two or more different zoning or height districts), the maximum height shall be measured separately for each portion of the structure in order to ensure compliance with the zoning or height district in which it is located. See Figure 4-4. (See Interpretation)

      Figure 4-4 — Height with Site Divided by Zoning

      Figure 4-4
  4. Height limit exceptions.

    1. Chimney exceptions. A chimney may exceed the height limit established by the applicable zoning district by a maximum of two feet.
    2. Roof mounted exceptions. (See Interpretation)

      1. Commercial and industrial structures. For commercial and industrial structures, appurtenances covering not more than 25 percent of the roof area may exceed the height limit established by the applicable zoning district by a maximum of 15 feet. (See Interpretation)

        (1) The Design Commission may allow the appurtenance height to go to a maximum of 20 feet if the DC finds that the additional height provides an improved architectural design (e.g., towers or other architectural features).

        (2) If the project is not subject to Design Review, the Director may allow the height to go to a maximum of 20 feet if the Director finds that the additional height provides an improved architectural design (e.g., towers or other architectural features). (See Interpretation)

      2. Multi-family structures. For multi-family structures, appurtenances covering not more than 25 percent of the roof area may exceed the height limit established by the applicable zoning district by a maximum of 10 feet. For projects subject to the City of Gardens provisions (17.22.060) enclosed or trellised roof decks may exceed the height limit upon approval of a minor conditional use permit.
      3. Roof-top garden railings. An open railing around a roof-top garden may be allowed to exceed the height limit established by the applicable zoning district; provided the railing is the minimum height required under the Building Code (for safety purposes) and the railing is stepped back so as not to be visible from the street. See Figure 4-5.

        Figure 4-5 — Roof-top Garden Railings

        Figure 4-5

17.40.070 - Limited Hours of Operation

  1. Applicability.

    1. The limited hours of operation regulations shall apply as contained on the Land Use Tables in Article 2 - Zoning Districts, Allowable Land Uses, and Zone-Specific Standards and Article 3 - Specific Plan Standards.  
    2. The regulations only apply when one or more of the identified uses are located on a site that is located within 150 feet of a residential zoning district.
    3. If located as specified in Subsection A.2., above, the identified uses may only operate between the hours of 7:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m. by right; and between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m. subject to the issuance of a Conditional Use Permit.
    4. This Section does not apply to the CD zoning district, except for the provisions of Subsection C. (Special hours for loading, unloading, and trash pick-up), below.
  2. Exempt activities. The following land use activities are exempt from these restrictions:

    1. Accessory antenna arrays.
    2. Public, Semi-public uses.
    3. Adult day-care B limited.
    4. Automated teller machines (ATMs).
    5. Banks (with walk-up services only).
    6. Child day-care B large care home.
    7. Child day-care B small care home.
    8. Emergency shelters.
    9. Life/care facilities.
    10. Lodging (operation of check-in/check-out and room services only), including bed and breakfast inns, and hotels and motels.
    11. Mixed-use projects (see 17.50.160).
    12. Mortuaries.
    13. Offices with fewer than 15 employees working on-site at one time.
    14. Offices, government.
    15. Single-room occupancy facilities.
    16. Temporary uses.

    17. Wireless communications facilities B major and minor.
    18. Work/live units.
  3. Special hours for truck loading, unloading, and trash pick-up. In the CD, CG, CL, CO, and IG zoning districts and within the commercial districts of specific plan areas, truck loading, unloading, and trash pick-up for any use that is located within 300 feet of a residential zoning district is allowed only between the hours of 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., Monday through Friday, and between 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. on Saturdays. No truck loading, unloading, or trash pick-up is allowed on Sundays.

17.40.080 - Outdoor Lighting

Exterior lighting on private property shall comply with the following requirements. Parking lot lighting shall comply with Section 17.46.220 (Outdoor Parking Area Lighting).

  1. Lighting shall be energy-efficient, and shielded. Lighting shall be energy-efficient, and shielded or recessed so that direct glare and reflections are confined to the maximum extent feasible within the boundaries of the site, and shall be directed downward and away from adjoining properties and public rights-of-way. No lighting on private property shall produce an illumination level greater than one footcandle on any property within a residential zoning district except on the site of the light source. (See Interpretation)
  2. No lights shall blink, flash, or be of high intensity or brightness. No permanently installed lighting shall blink, flash, or be of unusually high intensity or brightness, as determined by the Zoning Administrator.
  3. Lighting shall be appropriate in scale, intensity, and height. All lighting fixtures shall be appropriate in scale, intensity, and height to the use they are serving.
  4. Outdoor sports court lighting. Lighting for an outdoor sports court or field within 300 feet of a residential zoning district shall require Minor Conditional Use Permit approval.

17.40.090 - Performance Standards

The following performance standards shall apply to all land uses in all zoning districts. The Zoning Administrator or the Code Enforcement Administrator shall require evidence of the ability to comply with these requirements as they deem reasonably necessary before issuance of a Code Compliance Certificate, a Building Permit, or an Occupancy Permit.

  1. Electromagnetic interference. No use, activity, or process shall cause electromagnetic interference with normal radio or television reception on another site or with the function of other electronic equipment on another site.
  2. Heat and humidity. No use, activity, or process shall produce any unreasonable, disturbing, or unnecessary emissions of heat or humidity at the property line of the site that cause material distress, discomfort, or injury to the average person.
  3. Odor. No use, process, or activity shall produce odor that causes discomfort or annoyance to a reasonable person of normal sensitivity or which endangers the comfort, repose, health, or peace of residents whose property abuts the site.
  4. Solar access. No structure shall be established or enlarged unless it has been reviewed by the Zoning Administrator for its effect on solar access to existing and future solar applications on adjacent properties subject to the following findings:

    1. There are no conditions, covenants, and restrictions existing or proposed that are adverse to solar energy systems;
    2. Solar access has been addressed within the context of any required Environmental Impact Report; and
    3. The proposed structure will not prohibit or unreasonably restrict the use of solar energy systems on adjacent properties.
  5. Vibration. No use, activity, or process shall produce vibrations that cause discomfort or annoyance to reasonable persons of normal sensitivity, or which endangers the comfort, repose, health, or peace of residents whose property abuts the site.

17.40.100 - Public Art Requirements and Design Standards

  1. Purpose. This Section implements the policies of the Cultural and Recreational Element of the Pasadena Comprehensive General Plan that call for provisions for the arts and other cultural resources in new development. This Section will further this program goal by establishing a requirement that the design of certain projects incorporate a public art component.
  2. Applicability.

    1. Projects over 25,000 square feet. Each commercial, industrial, mixed-use project and parking structure over 25,000 square feet of gross floor area shall incorporate in its design a public art component. For the purpose of this section, the gross floor area calculation shall include parking garages (including below grade and at or above grade garages).
    2. Northwest Enterprise Zone.  Each new or renovated commercial, industrial, multi-family residential (three units or more), mixed-use project, and any parking garage with a valuation of $500,000 or more shall be subject to the public art requirement.
    3. All City projects. All City construction projects shall also incorporate in their design a public art component.
    4. Public art defined. For the purposes of this Section, "public art" shall mean the creation of an original work or service of an artist for a publicly accessible space which could be, but is not limited to, earthworks, mosaics, murals, and sculpture.
    5. One percent of Building Permit. The minimum standard of performance used to measure compliance with this Section shall be that the public art component shall have a value of not less than one percent of the Building Permit valuation.
  3. Exceptions. This Section shall not apply to a project:

    1. Having a fully executed owner participation agreement ("OPA"), disposition and development agreement ("DDA") or development agreement, or a Vesting Tentative Map approved before the effective date of the ordinance enacting this Section;
    2. Within the boundaries of a master plan or planned development zone change area approved before the effective date of the ordinance enacting this Section;
    3. For which a Building Permit was issued before the effective date of the ordinance enacting this Section. A Building Permit for additions to the same project which is issued after the effective date of the ordinance enacting this Section shall be subject to this Section; and
    4. Within the boundaries of any redevelopment project area outside the Northwest Enterprise Zone. As to applicable redevelopment project areas, the applicant shall comply with the design for development adopted in compliance with to the applicable redevelopment plan.
  4. Guidelines for compliance.

    1. The Arts and Culture Commission shall recommend and the Council, by resolution, shall adopt guidelines to be used in determining whether there has been compliance with this Section.
    2. The Arts and Culture Commission shall be responsible for determining compliance with this Section.
  5. Verification of compliance. No Certificate of Occupancy shall be issued for a project subject to the requirements of this Section until the Arts and Culture Commission has made a written determination of compliance with this Section.

17.40.110 - Reflective Surfaces

  1. Reflective glass. For new structures, mirror or highly reflective glass shall not cover more than 20 percent of a structure's surface visible from a street.
  2. Metallic finishes. In the RS and RM-12 zoning districts, the exterior walls and/or roof of a main structure may have a metallic finish (e.g., exposed metal cladding) only with the approval of a Minor Conditional Use Permit, in compliance with Section 17.61.050.

17.40.120 - Refuse Storage Facilities

  1. Applicability.

    1. A refuse storage area for the collection of trash and recycled goods shall be provided at the time any structure is constructed.
    2. Refuse storage areas for additional dwelling units or for enlargements to existing nonresidential uses shall meet the minimum size required by this Section.
    3. The number of dwelling units or amount of floor area used in determining the size of the refuse storage area shall be the total number of units or amount of floor area when the project is completed.
  2. Design standards. Each proposed development and new land use shall provide a refuse storage area in compliance with the following requirements, provided that the Zoning Administrator may approve deviations to these standards.

    1. Location. Each required refuse storage area shall be located within 150 feet of the users and shall not be located in a required garden, yard, court, or landscape area.
    2. Minimum storage area required. Each required refuse storage area shall provide space for the storage of trash and recyclable materials as follows.

      1. Trash area. An area for the storage of trash shall be provided with minimum clear dimensions of five feet by seven feet for all multi-family residential uses of four to 19 dwelling units, and for all nonresidential uses with a gross floor area of less than 25,000 square feet. Multi-family residential uses with 20 or more dwelling units, and nonresidential uses with 25,000 square feet of gross floor area or more, shall provide trash storage areas with the minimum size determined by the Director of Public Works based on the type of use, the size of the refuse area proposed, and the frequency of refuse collection.
      2. Recycling area. In each required refuse storage area, space shall be provided for recyclable materials. A separate bin for each type of recyclable material collected in the area in which the site is located shall be provided. The bins shall be clearly marked as to the types of recyclable materials which are to be placed in the bins, and a list of materials for which the bin is provided shall be attached to the bin.
    3. Enclosure required. A refuse storage area shall be enclosed in concrete block or other materials acceptable to the Zoning Administrator.

      1. Minimum height and clearance. The minimum height of the enclosure shall be six feet with a minimum vertical clearance of seven feet.
      2. Doors required. Solid wood or metal doors shall be provided at the entrance of the enclosure; the doors shall not be visible from a street.
      3. Maneuvering space. Space within the enclosure shall be provided for accessing and maneuvering the bins.
    4. Pavement. The surface of a refuse storage area shall be paved with Portland cement and shall be constructed to provide proper drainage.
    5. Accessibility. Accessibility to a refuse storage area shall be approved by the Director of Public Works.
    6. Use of alley. An alley shall not be used as a refuse storage area unless a permit is obtained from the Department of Public Works.
  3. Refuse and storage areas in the CD-1 zoning district. In the CD-1 zoning district, the above requirement shall be met when there is a change in use or tenant improvements are proposed. In lieu of providing an on-site refuse storage area, applicants for nonresidential uses may provide a waste management plan that meets the following requirements.

    1. Review and approval. The waste management plan shall be reviewed by the Zoning Administrator and Department of Public Works to ensure that all refuse, trash, and recyclable materials generated by the use shall be collected and stored in an approved refuse storage area.
    2. Plan content. The plan shall specify the location of the waste disposal and include the items as a refuse storage area or trash compactor.
    3. Shared facilities. Under a waste management plan a refuse storage area or trash compactor may be shared with an adjacent use or be located off-site.

      1. Location requirements. Shared facilities shall be located within 200 feet of the structure to be served.
      2. Lease agreement. A lease agreement for off-site refuse storage or compactor shall be submitted to the Zoning Administrator detailing the location of the shared trash facilities. The lease agreement shall be effective as long as the structure is being used and shall contain a provision requiring the Zoning Administrator to be notified in writing at least 30 days before the termination of the lease. The lease shall be recorded with the County Recorder and a copy filed with the Zoning Administrator.

17.40.130 - Relocated Structures

A structure may be relocated from one lot to another in compliance with the following requirements.

  1. Permit requirement. Minor Conditional Use Permit approval is required for relocation of a structure to a lot within the RS or RM-12 zoning districts. In the RM-16, RM-32, and RM-48 zoning districts a Minor Conditional Use Permit is required for a structure relocation for structures subject to the RS or RM-12 development standards.
  2. Guarantee of performance.

    1. Before the structure's relocation to the lot, the applicant shall submit to the Zoning Administrator a certificate of deposit, for the benefit of the City, the amount of which shall be approved by the Zoning Administrator, to cover the cost of completion of the relocation project.
    2. The deposit shall be returned to the applicant upon completion of the project as determined by the Zoning Administrator, less any amount drawn upon by the Zoning Administrator to complete the project if the applicant fails to do so.
    3. The Zoning Administrator may modify this requirement for projects that are City-assisted or if the applicant can demonstrate other guarantees to the satisfaction of the Zoning Administrator.
  3. Time for placement on foundation. The structure shall be secured immediately upon relocation and shall be placed on its foundation within 30 days of its relocation.
  4. Time for completion of work. All exterior work on the structure and any required landscaping shall be substantially completed within 365 days or less, in compliance with a schedule approved by the Zoning Administrator before issuance of a Building Permit.

17.40.140 - Remodeling of Single-Family Residences

Whenever more than 50 percent of the exterior wall(s) of a structure is removed, the replacement construction shall constitute a new structure that would have to comply with all current development standards of the subject zoning district.

17.40.150 - Screening

  1. General requirement. Except as otherwise specified herein, all new exterior mechanical equipment, except solar collectors, shall be screened or located out of view from public rights-of-way (not including freeways). Equipment to be screened includes air conditioning and refrigeration equipment, duct work, heating, plumbing lines, and satellite receiving antennas. (See Interpretation)
  2. Utility meters. Aboveground utility meters shall not be located between the front property line and the front foot of building occupancy or the corner side property line and the front foot of building occupancy.
  3. Screening specification. At a minimum, screening materials shall have evenly distributed openings or perforations not exceeding 50 percent of surface area and shall effectively screen mechanical equipment. (See Interpretation)
  4. Exceptions. The following are exceptions to the above screening requirements:

    1. Screening requirements are not applicable to an antenna array consisting of a whip antenna that does not exceed a height of 15 feet or to satellite earth station antennas that are preempted by Part 25 of Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
    2. The Zoning Administrator may allow utility meters to be located between the front property line and the front foot of building occupancy or the corner side property line and the front foot of building occupancy when no other location is feasible. Aboveground utility meters located in front or corner yards shall be screened from view from the public right-of-way.
    3. Exceptions to the screening of mechanical equipment may be approved for projects subject to Design Review in Chapter 17.61 when the equipment is designed as an integral part of the architecture or where the screening enclosure substantially increases the visual mass on the roof line of a structure and alternative treatment may be preferable.

17.40.160 - Setback and Encroachment Plane Requirements and Exceptions

  1. Purpose.
  1. This Section provides standards for the use and minimum size of required setbacks, and for the application of encroachment planes.
  2. These standards are intended to provide open areas around structures for visibility and traffic safety; access to and around structures; access to natural light, ventilation and direct sunlight; separation of incompatible land uses; and space for privacy, landscaping, and recreation.
  3. The encroachment plane standards of this Section are intended to moderate the mass and scale of proposed structures within certain residential and commercial zoning districts to maintain the desired neighborhood character.
  1. Setback requirements.
     
    1. All structures.
  1. All structures shall comply with the setback requirements of the applicable zoning districts established by Article 2 (Zoning Districts and Allowable Land Uses), with the requirements of this Section, and other setback requirements established by this Article and/or Article 5 (Standards for Specific Land Uses).
  2. Each required setback shall be maintained open and unobstructed from the ground upward, except for trees, other plant materials, and the storage of City-provided refuse containers in single-family side or rear setbacks, and except as provided by Subsection E. (Setback and encroachment plane exceptions, allowed projections) below.

  1. Commercial and industrial abutting residential zoning district. In the commercial and industrial zoning districts, except for the CD district, a 15-foot side and/or rear setback shall be provided adjacent to any abutting residential zoning district. This setback requirement shall not apply along a property line that abuts a parking overlay property (PK) that is used for parking.  Single-family residential projects shall meet the rear setback requirements of the RS-6 district, two units on a lot shall meet the requirements of the RM-12 district and three or more units shall meet the setback requirements for multi-family districts (City of Gardens requirements - 17.22.060).
  1. Measurement of setbacks. The following setbacks shall be measured from each exterior wall of a structure, to define a setback line parallel to the adjacent property line. Figure 4-6 shows the location of each type of setback, and the points from which they are measured.
  1. Front setbacks. The front setback shall be measured at a right angle from the front property line of the lot to the point on the structure nearest to the front property line excluding the front porch.
  1. Corner lots. The measurement shall be taken from the nearest point on the structure, excluding any porches, to the nearest point of the property line adjoining the street that is opposite the rear yard.
  2. Flag lots. See Section 17.40.050 (Flag Lot Development Standards).
  1. Side setbacks. Side setbacks shall be measured at right angles from the nearest point on the side property line of the lot to the nearest portion of the structure, excluding any porches; establishing a setback line parallel to the side property line that extends between the front and rear yards.
  2. Rear setbacks. The rear setback shall be measured at right angles from the nearest point on the rear property line of the lot to the nearest portion of the structure, establishing a setback line parallel to the rear property line.

Figure 4-6 — Location and Measurement of Setbacks

Figure 4-6

Figure 4-7 — Flag Lot Setbacks

Figure 4-7
  1. Encroachment plane requirements. Proposed structures shall comply with the following encroachment plane requirements in addition to the minimum setback requirements of this Section except as otherwise provided by Subsection E. (Setback and encroachment plane exceptions, allowed projections) below. In addition to the minimum setback requirements of the applicable zoning district and as defined in Subsection C., above, a main structure within:
  1. RS and RM-12 zoning districts. Principal structures within the RS and RM-12 zoning districts shall not be located within a side setback encroachment plane sloping upward and inward to the site at a 30-degree angle measured from the vertical, commencing six feet above the existing grade along the interior side property line. See Figure 4-8.  (See Interpretation)

Figure 4-8 — Encroachment plane requirements for the RS and RM-12 districts


 
  1. Nonresidential structures abutting RS or RM-12 districts.  Principal and accessory structures shall not be located within an encroachment plane sloping upward and inward to the site at a 45-degree angle, commencing six feet above the existing grade at the property line of the abutting residential zoning district. This encroachment plane requirement shall not apply along a property line that abuts a parking overlay property (PK) that is used for parking. See Figure 4-8.1.

     Figure 4.8.1 – Encroachment Plane Requirements for Projects Abutting RS and RM-12 Zoning District

 

  Figure 4.8.1  

  1. Nonresidential structures abutting RM-16, RM-32, and RM-48 zoning districts.  Principal and accessory structures shall not be located within an encroachment plane sloping upward and inward to the site at a 45-degree angle, commencing 20 feet above the existing grade at the property line of the abutting residential zoning district.  This encroachment plane requirement shall not apply along a property line that abuts a parking overlay property (PK) that is used for parking. See Figure 4-9.

Figure 4-9 - Encroachment plane requirements for projects abutting an RM-16, RM-32 and RM-48 districts

Figure 4-9
 
  1. Multi-family projects adjacent to single-family districts.  Principal and accessory structures using the City of Gardens Standards (Section 17.22.070) that adjoin an RS district along a side lot line shall provide a five-foot side yard setback and shall not be located within a side encroachment plane sloping upward and inward to the site at a 30-degree angle measured from the vertical, commencing six feet above the existing grade along the side lot line. See Figure 4-9.1.  Also see encroachment exceptions in Table 4-2.1.

 Figure 4-9.1 - Side Yard Encroachment Plane

       

  1. Setback and encroachment plane exceptions, allowed projections. An attached architectural feature may extend beyond the wall of the structure and into a front, side, or rear setback, and into the encroachment plane required by Subsection D. (Encroachment plane requirements), above, in compliance with Tables 4-1 and 4-2.  

Table 4-1 — Allowed Projections into Setbacks

Projecting Feature

Allowed Projection into Setback

Additions to multi-family buildings with 3 or more units built before February 14, 1989

May project into a required side yard which is nonconforming as long as addition maintains existing setback and is no closer than 4 feet to a property line.

Balconies (1)

Maximum depth of 10 feet into the front yard.

Bay Window

Bay Window (1)

24 inches into a required front, rear or corner side yard setback for a linear distance not to exceed 10 ft for any one bay, nor a total of 15 ft for all bays into each setback.

No greater than 3 feet deep and 10 feet long and shall be a minimum of 3 feet from finished grade, and no higher than one story may project into the front yard. A bay window must be a minimum of 3 feet above finished grade. The maximum frequency of such bays is one bay per 15 feet of lot width measured at the front property line.

Eave/roof overhang

36 inches

Fireplace or chimney (2)

Fireplace or chimney (1)

24 in. for a maximum length of 10 ft along the wall from which it projects.

3 feet into a required yard.

First story addition to main structure (2)

May project into a required side setback that is nonconforming as to side setback requirements; provided, that:

  1. The addition maintains the existing setback of the structure to which it relates
  2. The existing distance between the main structure and the side property line is a minimum of four ft;
  3. The addition does not project into a required side setback encroachment plane; and
  4. The maximum length of the addition does not exceed 20 linear feet.

Freestanding trellis (2)

May be located in a front or corner side yard setback; provided, that the trellis:

  1. Does not occupy more than 5% of the required setback area;
  2. Is nine ft or less in height;
  3. Is at least 50% open on top and all sides;
  4. Complies with Municipal Code Chapter 12.12 relating to the obstruction of views at intersections; and
  5. Is not located over a driveway.

Uncovered steps, or landings, not more than 36 in. in height (3) may project into a side yard as long as more than 35 in. in height and there is no guard railing.

36 inches in width, for a maximum length of 10 ft.

Unenclosed front porch (3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unenclosed front porch (1)

 

 

May project into a required front setback as follows:

  1. The maximum projection into the front setback shall be 10 ft, but shall be no closer than 15 ft to the front property line;
  2. The width of the porch shall not exceed the width of the main structure;
  3. The porch shall not exceed one story and a maximum plate height of 12 feet; and
  4. The porch shall not be enclosed.

May project into a required front setback as follows:

  1. The maximum projection into the front setback shall be 10 ft;
  2. The porch shall not exceed one story
  3. The porch shall not be enclosed.
Concrete walkway or deck (2) May project into a rear or side yard as long as not more than 6 inches in height.

Notes:

  1. Applies to projects subject to the City of Gardens standards of 17.22.060.
  2. Applies only to projects subject to the RS or RM-12 development standards.
  3. This limitation only affects the front, corner side, and rear yard setbacks.

Figure 4-10 — Examples of allowed projections into setbacks

 Figure 4-10

Table 4-2 — Allowed Projections into Encroachment Plane
Using RS and RM-12 Standards

Projecting Feature

Allowed Projection into Encroachment Plane

Eave/roof overhang

36 inches

Fireplace or chimney

24 in. for a maximum length of 10 ft along the wall from which it projects.

Dormer, gable, and/or gable end of roof structure on main structure

36 inches

Second story of main structure

An addition to an existing second story, may project within the encroachment plane that is nonconforming provided, that:
  1. The structure setback of the second story continues the structure setback of the second story;
  2. The side setback adjacent to the main structure complies with the minimum setback of 5 feet required by the applicable zoning district; and
  3. The maximum length of the addition does not exceed 16 linear feet.

 

TABLE 4-2.1   ALLOWED PROJECTIONS INTO ENCROACHMENT PLANE FOR PROJECTS USING CITY OF GARDENS STANDARDS (17.22.070)

Projecting Feature Allowed Projection into Encroachment Plane

 
Eave/roof overhang

 

                           36 inches


Fireplace or chimney

 

24 in. for a maximum length of 10 ft along the wall from which it projects.


Dormer, gable, and/or gable end of roof structure on main structure
 

                           36 inches

Second story of main structure

May be within encroachment plane so long as:

1. The structure setback of the second story continues the structure setback of the first story;

2.  The side setback adjacent to the main structure complies with the minimum setback required by the applicable zoning district; and

3.  The structure was constructed under a Building Permit issued after June 3, 2006.

  1. Limitations on the use of setbacks.  A required setback shall only be used in compliance with the following requirements.
  1. Storage. No required setback shall be used for the storage of:

    1. Junk, inoperable vehicles, scrap, or similar material; or

    2. Building materials, except during on-site construction, in compliance with a valid Building Permit.

  2. Parking. Parking is allowable within a required setback only in compliance with Section 17.46.080 (Parking Design Standards).

  3. Front and corner side setback pavement in residential zones. Within a residential zoning district, no portion of any front or corner side setback area between the street property line and the building line shall be paved unless paving has been approved by the Zoning Administrator and the paving and site comply with the following requirements:

    1. Not more than 30 percent of the front or corner side setback area shall be paved;
    2. All unpaved areas shall be improved and maintained with landscaping;
    3. A driveway shall lead to covered parking elsewhere on the lot; and
    4. Driveway widths shall not exceed the maximum allowed under Section 17.46.150 (Driveway Design, Widths, and Clearances). (See Interpretation)

17.40.170 - Truck Trip Limitations

  1. Applicability.

    1. The following standards shall apply to commercial and industrial uses in commercial and industrial zoning districts including specific plan areas.
    2. This Section does not apply to the CD zoning district.
  2. Hours of operation.

    1. The operation of large trucks on sites that are more than 500 feet from a freeway and are less than 300 feet from a residential district that is not within 500 feet of a freeway shall be permitted between the hours of 6 a.m. to 7 p.m. This shall apply to new uses and uses that expand by more than 30 percent of the gross floor area.
    2. In the CG-1 district, on any site that is within 300 feet of an R district, large trucks shall be permitted between the hours of 6 a.m. to 7 p.m. This requirement applies to all uses, existing as well as proposed.
    3. These hours of operation maybe modified through the approval of a conditional use permit. The base ambient noise level found in the vicinity (without the operation of the trucks) shall not be exceeded during the time the truck activity is proposed.
  3. Number of truck trips.

    1. A commercial or use within 300 feet of an R district shall be limited to ten one-way truck trips by large trucks per day, per six-day work week. This shall apply to new uses and uses that expand by more than 30 percent of the gross floor area. This requirement shall not apply to uses that are within 500 feet of a freeway.
    2. A commercial or industrial use within 300 feet of an R district and within the CG-1 district shall be limited to ten one-way truck trips by large trucks per day, per six-day work week. This shall apply to all sites and uses.

17.40.180 - Walls and Fences

All proposed walls and fences, including those located within a specific plan area, shall comply with the requirements of this Section. Requirements for walls for screening purposes are in Section 17.40.140 (Screening).

  1. Wall and fence height measurement. (See Interpretation)

    1. Measured from existing grade. The height of all walls and fences shall be measured from the existing grade as it existed on March 2, 2009. The height of all walls and fences shall be measured from the existing grade to the top of the wall or fence in order to prevent the artificial raising of the grade in order to allow for a higher wall or fence. Where the existing grade changes (i.e., for a driveway) the fence height shall change with the grade. (See Interpretation)
    2. Measured in a continuum. The height shall be measured in a continuum at each point along the wall or fence.
  2. Height limits for walls and fences.

    1. Walls and fences adjacent to intersections. All walls and fences adjacent to a street intersection shall comply with the requirements of Municipal Code Chapter 12.12.
    2. RS and RM-12 zoning districts. The maximum height of a wall or fence within the RS or RM-12 zoning districts shall be as follows and as illustrated by Figure 4-11 (Fence Height Limits in the RS and RM-12 Zoning Districts) below.

      1. Abutting OS or PS zoning district — six feet. In interior side or rear setbacks abutting property in a OS or PS zoning district or abutting property with a residential use, the maximum wall or fence height shall be six feet.
      2. Abutting commercial or industrial zoning district — eight feet. In interior side or rear setbacks abutting property in a commercial or industrial zoning district with a nonresidential use, the maximum wall or fence height shall be eight feet along the property line separating the residential district from the commercial or industrial district.
      3. Front setback — four feet. Between the front property line and the occupancy frontage, the maximum wall or fence height shall be four feet. Walls and fences in the front setback shall be at least 50 percent open and any concrete block materials shall have a finished stucco appearance. Fences shall be set back a minimum of 18 inches from the front property line. (See Interpretation)
      4. Corner and rear yard areas. Walls and fences in corner and rear yard setback areas shall be allowed as follows and as illustrated by Figure 4-11 (Corner Wall and Fence Height Limits in RS and RM-12 Zoning Districts) below:

        (1) Rear setback. The maximum height shall be six feet between the rear building line and the rear property line, provided the wall or fence is located a minimum distance of five feet from the street property line.

        (a) Where there are multiple rear building lines:

        i. The "rear building line" shall be the corner of the dwelling that is closest to the street property line; and

        ii. The corner of the dwelling that is closest to the street property line shall have a rear building line that is a minimum of 15 feet in length.

        (b) If there is an offset of less than 15 feet in length, the rear building line shall be the corner of the dwelling closest to the rear property line.

        (2) Within five feet of street property line. The maximum height within five feet of a street property line or between the occupancy frontage and the rear building line shall not exceed four feet.

        (3) Visibility at edge of driveway. The maximum height shall be 30 inches within a triangular area extending at an angle of 45 degrees from the street property line to a point on the edge of the driveway 10 feet from the street property line.

        Notwithstanding these provisions, the maximum height of a wall or fence in a corner setback shall be six feet and may be located at the street property line, provided the wall or fence is located beyond the front building line of the main structure and a commercial or industrial zoning district is located on the opposite side of the street adjacent to the corner setback.

        Figure 4-11 – Fence Height Limits in the RS and RM-12 Zoning Districts

        Figure 4-11
         
      5. Double frontage lots. On double frontage lots, the Zoning Administrator shall determine the rear setback for the purposes of wall or fence height, and the maximum height of the rear wall or fence shall be six feet; provided, the wall or fence is located a minimum distance of 25 feet measured perpendicular to the rear street property line. The maximum height of a wall or fence in the rear setback within 25 feet of a street property line shall not exceed four feet.
      6. Flag lots. On flag lots, the maximum front yard wall or fence height may be six feet, provided the front yard of the flag lot is abutting interior side or rear yards on all sides. (See Interpretation)
      7. Spikes on walls and fences. Spikes on walls and fences are not allowed when the walls or fences are less than six feet in height.
      8. Private street for easements. Fences, gates or walls shall not be constructed within or across private or public streets or easements that serve more than one property.
      9. Prohibited materials. Barbed wire, concertina wire, and razor wire shall not be allowed.
    3. Multi-family (City of Gardens standards). Walls and fences may be located along property lines or in setbacks in compliance with the following.
       
      1. The height of a wall of fence along the rear property line or rear yard shall not exceed 10 feet excluding any corner side yard setback.
      2. The height of a wall of fence along the side property lines shall not exceed 10 feet for the rear 50 percent of the site and shall not exceed six feet for the remainder of the site, excluding the the front or corner side yard setback.
      3. Between the front property line and the occupancy frontage, the height of a wall or fence in a front yard or corner yard shall not exceed four feet if it is 50 percent open and two feet if the wall or fence is solid. The wall or fence height shall be measured from existing grade and shall be setback 18 inches from the front property line.
      4. The height of a wall or fence separating the main garden from other garden space on the same or an adjacent lot shall meet the requirements as a wall or fence in the front yard. See Subparagraph 3 above.
      5. The height of a wall or fence separating the main garden from a residential building on an adjoining lot with entrances close to the common property line shall meet the same requirements as a wall or fence in the front yard. See Subparagraph 3 above.
      6. The height of an interior wall or fence bordering an individual patio area shall not exceed six feet. It is encouraged to be less and to allow at least 50 percent visibility.
      7. The height of a wall or fence screening a driveway shall not exceed six feet.
      8. The height of a wall or fence screening a parking area shall be at least six feet but shall not exceed 10 feet.
    4. Nonresidential zoning districts. The maximum height of a wall or fence within the commercial and industrial zoning districts, including the CD, shall be as follows.

      1. Nonresidential projects.

        (1) Front and corner side setbacks.

        (a) The maximum height of a wall or fence along a street frontage shall be four feet when the wall or fence is located in front of a structure.

        (b) A wall or fence not located in front of a structure, but along a street frontage (e.g., located in front of a parking lot), shall not exceed a maximum height of six feet.

        (2) Interior side and rear setbacks.

        (a) The maximum height of a wall or fence shall be eight feet.

        (b) The height of the wall or fence shall step down to four feet when located within five feet of the street property line(s).

        (3) When abutting a residential zoning district. The minimum height of a wall located within five feet of a street property line(s) shall be equivalent to the maximum height for a solid wall or fence in the development standards of the abutting residential zoning district.

        (4) Design standards for walls and fences.

        (a) Walls and fences abutting a residential zoning district shall be constructed only from brick, concrete, or masonry.

        (b) Barbed wire, concertina wire, and razor wire shall not be allowed.

        (c) The wall or fence shall be a minimum of 50 percent open, except when a solid masonry wall is required to screen outdoor storage areas in compliance with Section 17.50.180.

        (d) Chain-link fences shall not be allowed along street frontages, but may be allowed in rear and interior side yards.

        (e) Spikes on walls and fences are not allowed when the walls or fences are less than six feet in height.

      2. Residential projects.

        (1) RS or RM-12 zoning district standards. Projects subject to the development standards of the RS or RM-12 zoning districts shall meet the wall and fence requirements of those zoning districts.

        (2) RM-16, RM-32, or RM-48 zoning district standards. Projects subject to the development standards of the RM-16, RM-32, or RM-48 zoning districts shall meet the wall and fence requirements of those zoning districts.

      3. All new projects abutting a residential zoning district. Required setbacks abutting residential zoning districts shall be enclosed by a solid concrete or masonry wall at least seven feet in height.

17.40.190 - Underground Utilities

Proposed development shall provide for the undergrounding of utility facilities (e.g., cable television, data network, electrical, telephone, and similar distribution lines providing direct service to the site) in compliance with the following requirements.

  1. Nonresidential development. All utility facilities shall be installed underground within the site.
  2. Residential development. All utility facilities on a site being developed with a new dwelling unit, or new construction adding more than 100 square feet to an existing dwelling unit, shall be installed underground within the property lines of the site.

    1. Risers on poles and structures are allowed and shall be provided by the developer or owner from the pole that provides services to the property.
    2. Where no developed underground system exists, utility service poles may be placed on the rear of the property to be developed only to terminate underground facilities.
    3. The developer or owner is responsible for complying with the requirements of this Section and shall make the necessary arrangements with the affected utility providers for the installation of the facilities.
    4. The requirements of this Subsection shall not apply when the cost of placing the services underground exceeds the cost of construction of the new dwelling unit or the new construction.
  3. Exemptions. Unless otherwise required by any provision of the Municipal Code, a development site shall not be subject to the requirements of this Section if, as of the date of filing of a Building Permit application:

    1. The utility lines serving the site are located aboveground, and there are no underground facilities within 100 feet of the site, and no plan to install the facilities within ten years of that date are either in the current budget or other authorized plan of the Pasadena Water and Power Department; or
    2. The site is not within an underground utility district approved by the Council.

Chapter 17.42 - Inclusionary Housing Requirements

Sections:

17.42.010 - Purpose of Chapter
17.42.020 - Applicability and Exempt Projects
17.42.030 - Definitions
17.42.040 - Inclusionary Unit Requirements
17.42.050 - Alternatives to Units within Project
17.42.060 - Housing Plan and Housing Agreement Required
17.42.070 - Standards
17.42.080 - Enforcement
17.42.090 - Takings Determination
17.42.100 - Inclusionary Housing Trust Fund
17.42.110 - Administrative Fees
17.42.120 - Appeal
 

17.42.010 - Purpose of Chapter

This Chapter establishes standards and procedures to encourage the development of housing that is affordable to a range of households with varying income levels. The purpose of this Chapter is to encourage the development and availability of affordable housing by ensuring that the addition of affordable housing units to the City's housing stock is in proportion with the overall increase in new housing units.

17.42.020 - Applicability and Exempt Projects

The requirements of this Chapter shall apply to all new residential projects, all subdivisions maps approved after the date of this Ordinance, and all single room occupancy projects, except as noted in Subsection B. The requirements of this Chapter shall apply to all developers and their agents, successors-in-interest, and assigns proposing a residential project. All inclusionary units required by this Chapter shall be sold or rented in compliance with this Chapter and the City's regulations for the implementation of this Chapter (see Subsection A).

  1. Additional regulations. The Council shall by resolution establish regulations for the implementation of this Chapter. (These regulations were first adopted by the Council on September 10, 2001 and are entitled "City of Pasadena Inclusionary Housing Regulations.") All references to "Director" in said regulations shall mean the City Manager or the Assistant City Manager.
  2. Exempt projects. The following are exempt from the requirements of this Chapter.

    1. Project with discretionary approvals. A residential project that has obtained:

      1. Discretionary approval (e.g., a Conditional Use Permit, Variance, or Design Review approval) in compliance with this Zoning Code before the effective date of this Chapter; and
      2. A Building Permit in compliance with the discretionary approval within 12 months of the effective date of this Chapter; and
      3. A Certificate of Occupancy in compliance with the same discretionary approval.
    2. Exempt by State law. A residential project that is exempt from this Chapter by State law, including a project for which the City enters into a development agreement.
    3. Project with Redevelopment Agreement. A residential project for which the Community Development Commission has executed a Redevelopment Agreement, provided that the Redevelopment Agreement is effective at the time the residential project would otherwise be required to comply with the requirements of this Chapter, and there is no uncured breach of the Redevelopment Agreement before issuance of a Certificate of Occupancy for the project.

17.42.030 - Definitions

All of the terms used in this Chapter are defined in Article 8 (Glossary of Specialized Terms and Land Use Types) under the term "Affordable Housing Definitions."

17.42.040 - Inclusionary Unit Requirements

  1. Minimum number of units required. A minimum of 15 percent of the total number of dwelling units in a residential project shall be developed, offered to, and sold or rented to households of low and moderate-income, at an affordable housing cost, as follows.

    1. Units for sale. If the project consists of units for sale, a minimum of 15 percent of the total number of units in the project shall be sold to low or moderate-income households.
    2. Rental units. If the residential project consists of rental units, a minimum of 10 percent of the units shall be rented to low-income households and five percent of the units shall be rented to low or moderate-income households.
  2. Exception to minimum number required. For a period of 12 months from the effective date of this Chapter, a residential project that obtains discretionary approval, or if no discretionary approval is required, obtains a Building Permit within that period, shall develop, offer to, and sell the following number of units to low and moderate-income households at an affordable housing cost, instead of the 15 percent required by Subsection A.

    1. Units for sale. If the project consists of units for sale, a minimum of six percent of the total number of units shall be sold to low or moderate-income households.
    2. Rental units. If the project consists of rental units, a minimum of four percent of the total number of units shall be rented to low-income households and two percent of the total number of units shall be rented to low or moderate-income households.
  3. Allowable credits. The inclusionary unit requirements of Subsections A. and B. may be reduced as follows.

    1. Very low-income units in lieu of low-income units. If very low-income units are provided in lieu of the required low-income units, the project shall receive a credit of 1.5 affordable units for each unit actually provided.
    2. Very low-income units in lieu of moderate-income units. If very low-income units are provided in lieu of required moderate-income units, the project shall receive a credit of two units for each unit actually provided.
    3. Low-income units in lieu of moderate-income units. If low-income units are provided in lieu of required moderate-income units, the project shall receive a credit of 1.5 units for each unit actually provided.
  4. Rounding of quantities in calculations. In calculating the required number of inclusionary units, fractional units of 0.75 or above shall be rounded-up to a whole unit if the residential project consists of 10 to 20 units; and fractional units of 0.50 or above shall be rounded-up to a whole unit if the project consists of 21 or more units.

17.42.050 - Alternatives to Units within Project

As an alternative to developing required inclusionary units within an affected residential project in compliance with Section 17.42.040 (Inclusionary Unit Requirement), the requirements of this Chapter may be satisfied through one or more of the following alternatives, in compliance with the City's regulations for the implementation of this Chapter (see Section 17.42.020.A).

  1. In lieu fee. The developer may choose to pay a fee in lieu of providing all or some of the inclusionary units, as follows.

    1. Amount of fee. The amount of the fee shall be as required by the Council's Fee Resolution.  (See in lieu fee maps).
    2. Special adjustment for first 12 months. For 12 months from the effective date of this Chapter, the fee shall be 40 percent of that required by the Council's Fee Resolution.
    3. Timing of payment. One-half of the in-lieu fee required by this Subsection shall be paid (or a letter of credit posted) before issuance of a Building Permit for any part of the residential project. The remainder of the fee shall be paid before a Certificate of Occupancy is issued for any unit in the project.
    4. Housing Trust Fund. Fees collected in compliance with this Section shall be deposited in the Inclusionary Housing Trust Fund.
  2. Off-site units. Upon application by the developer and at the discretion of the City Manager or the Assistant City Manager, the developer may satisfy the inclusionary unit requirements for the project, in whole or in part, by constructing or substantially rehabilitating the required number of units on a site other than that of the affected residential project.
  3. Land donation. Upon application by the developer and at the discretion of the City Manager or the Assistant City Manager, the developer may satisfy the project inclusionary unit requirements, in whole or in part, by dedicating land to the City for the construction of the inclusionary units.

  4. On-site inclusionary units required when very low, low, and/or moderate income households are displaced.  Any other provision of this chapter, notwithstanding, any project subject to this chapter which results in the displacement of very low, low, and/or moderate income household(s) shall be required to provide on-site inclusionary units as required by this chapter.

17.42.060 - Housing Plan and Housing Agreement Required

  1. Submittal and execution. The developer shall comply with the following requirements at the times and in compliance with the standards and procedures in the City's regulations for the implementation of this Chapter (see Section 17.42.020.A).

    1. Housing Plan. The developer shall submit an Inclusionary Housing Plan for approval by the City Manager or the Assistant City Manager detailing how the provisions of this Chapter will be implemented for the proposed project.
    2. Housing Agreement. The developer shall execute and cause to be recorded an Inclusionary Housing Agreement, unless the developer is complying with this Chapter as provided in Sections 17.42.050.A. (In lieu fee) or C. (Land donation).
  2. Discretionary approvals. No discretionary approval shall be issued for a residential project subject to this Chapter until the developer has submitted an Inclusionary Housing Plan.
  3. Issuance of Building Permit. No Building Permit shall be issued for a residential project subject to this Chapter unless the City Manager or the Assistant City Manager has approved the Inclusionary Housing Plan, and any required Inclusionary Housing Agreement has been recorded.
  4. Issuance of Certificate of Occupancy. A Certificate of Occupancy shall not be issued for a residential project subject to this Chapter unless the approved Inclusionary Housing Plan has been fully implemented.

17.42.070 - Standards

  1. Location within project, relationship to non-inclusionary units. All inclusionary units shall be:

    1. Reasonably dispersed throughout the residential project;
    2. Proportional, in number, bedroom size, and location, to the market rate units; and
    3. Comparable with the market rate units in terms of the appearance, base design, materials, and finished quality.
  2. Timing of construction. All inclusionary units in a residential project shall be constructed concurrent with, or before the construction of the market rate units. If the City approves a phased project, the required inclusionary units shall be provided within each phase of the residential project.
  3. Time limit for reserving units. All required inclusionary units shall be reserved for low and moderate-income households at the applicable affordable housing cost for the following minimum time periods.

    1. Units for sale - 45 years. A unit for sale shall be reserved for the target income level group at the applicable affordable housing cost for a minimum of 45 years.
    2. Rental units - Reserved in perpetuity. A rental unit shall remain reserved for the target income level group at the applicable affordable housing cost in perpetuity.
  4. Recapture of financial interest. Notwithstanding Subsection C. 1., above, inclusionary units for sale may be sold to an above-moderate-income purchaser in compliance with the City's regulations for the implementation of this Chapter (see Section 17.42.020.A); provided that the sale shall result in a recapture by the City, or its designee, of a financial interest in the unit equal to:

    1. Difference between price and value. The difference between the initial affordable sales price and the appraised value at the time of the initial sale; and
    2. Proportionate share of appreciation. A proportionate share of any appreciation.
  5. Preference and priority system. The preference and priority system set forth in the City’s Inclusionary Housing Regulations shall be used for determining eligibility among prospective beneficiaries for inclusionary units created through this Chapter. 
     

17.42.080 - Enforcement

  1. Forfeiture of funds. Any individual who sells or rents an inclusionary unit in violation of this Chapter shall be required to forfeit all money so obtained. Recovered funds shall be deposited into the Inclusionary Housing Trust Fund.
  2. Legal actions. The City may institute any appropriate legal actions or proceedings necessary to ensure compliance with this Chapter, including actions:

    1. To disapprove, revoke, or suspend any permit, including a Building Permit, Certificate of Occupancy, or discretionary approval; and
    2. For injunctive relief or damages.
  3. Recovery of costs. In any action to enforce this Chapter, or an Inclusionary Housing Agreement recorded hereunder, the City shall be entitled to recover its reasonable attorney's fees and costs.

17.42.090 - Takings Determination

  1. Determination of a taking of property without just compensation.

    1. Initiated by request from developer. Commencing upon the approval or disapproval of the Inclusionary Housing Plan by the City Manager or the Assistant City Manager, in compliance with the City's regulations for the implementation of this Chapter (see Section 17.42.020.A), and within 15 days thereafter, a developer may request a determination that the requirements of this Chapter, taken together with the inclusionary incentives as applied to the residential project, would legally constitute a taking of property of the residential project without just compensation under the California or Federal Constitutions.
    2. Burden on developer. The developer has the burden of providing economic information and other evidence necessary to establish that application of the provisions of this Chapter to the project would constitute a taking of the property of the proposed project without just compensation.
    3. City Manager or the Assistant City Manager's determination subject to appeal. City Manager or the Assistant City Manager shall make the determination, which may be appealed in compliance with Chapter 17.72 (Appeals) except that the Council shall serve as the applicable review authority.

  2. Presumption of facts. In making the taking recommendation or determination, the review authority shall presume each of the following facts:

    1. Application of requirements. Application of the inclusionary housing requirement to the residential project;
    2. Incentives. Application of the inclusionary incentives;
    3. Product type. Utilization of the most cost-efficient product type for the inclusionary units; and
    4. External funding. External funding where reasonably likely to occur.
  3. Modifications to reduce obligations. If it is determined that the application of the provisions of this Chapter would be a taking, the Inclusionary Housing Plan shall be modified to reduce the obligations in the inclusionary housing component to the extent, and only to the extent necessary, to avoid a taking. If it is determined no taking would occur though application of this Chapter to the residential project, the requirements of this Chapter remain applicable.

17.42.100 - Inclusionary Housing Trust Fund

There is hereby established a separate fund of the City, to be known as the Inclusionary Housing Trust Fund. All monies collected in compliance with Subsections 17.42.050.A (In lieu fee), 17.42.080.D (Recapture of financial interest), or 17.42.090 (Enforcement), above, shall be deposited in the Inclusionary Housing Trust Fund.

17.42.110 - Administrative Fees

The Council may by resolution establish reasonable fees and deposits for the administration of this Chapter.

17.42.120 - Appeal

Within 15 calendar days after the date of the City Manager or the Assistant City Manager's decision, an appeal may be filed in compliance with Chapter 17.72 (Appeals and Calls for Review).

Chapter 17.43 - Density Bonus, Waivers and Incentives

Sections:

17.43.010 - Purpose of Chapter
17.43.020 - Applicability
17.43.030 - Definitions
17.43.040 - Density Bonus Allowance
17.43.050 - Concessions and other Incentives
17.43.060 - Waiver of Development Standards
17.43.070 - Floor Area Bonus and Concessions for Child Day-Care Center
17.43.080 - Bonus for Donation of Land
17.43.090 - Alternative Parking Standards
17.43.100 - Enforcement of Affordability
17.43.110 - Administrative Procedures
 

17.43.010 - Purpose of Chapter

This Chapter establishes procedures to implement the State’s Density Bonus law as set forth in Government Code Section 65915.  The incentives in this Section are used by the City as a means of meeting its commitment to encouraging the provision of affordable housing to all economic groups living within the City.

17.43.020 - Applicability

The provisions of this Section apply only to multi-family residential and mixed-use development projects consisting of five or more dwelling units not including units granted as a density bonus.

17.43.030 - Definitions

All of the terms used in this Chapter are defined in Article 8 (Glossary of Specialized Terms and Land Use Types) under the term "Affordable Housing Definitions."

17.43.040 - Density Bonus Allowance

  1. Density bonus requirement.  A request for a density bonus shall not require any discretionary approval by the City. A request for a density bonus pursuant to this Chapter shall only be granted if an applicant seeks and agrees to construct one of the following: 

     

    1. At least 5 percent of the units are dedicated to very low-income households;
    2. At least 10 percent of the units are dedicated to low-income and very low-income households;
    3. At least 10 percent of the units are dedicated to moderate-income households and are available to the general public for sale; or

    4. At least 35 dwelling units are available exclusively to persons aged 55 and older and to those residing with them.

  2. Density bonus of up to 35 percent.  In calculating the number of units required for very low, low, and moderate-income households, the density bonus units shall not be included.

     

    1. The density bonus for very low-income units shall be calculated as follows (See Interpretation)

Table 4-3 - Increase in Allowable Density for Very Low-Income Units

Percentage of Very Low-Income Units

Percentage Density Bonus

5 20
6 22.5
7 25
8 27.5
9 30
10 32.5
11 35

 

  1. The density bonus for low-income units shall be calculated as follows.

Table 4-3.1 - Increase in Allowable Density for Low-Income Units

Percentage of Low-Income
 Units

Percentage Density Bonus

10 20
11 21.5
12 23
13 24.5
14 26
15 27.5
16 29
17 30.5
18 32
19 33.5
20 35

 

  1. The density bonus for moderate-income ownership units shall be calculated as follows.

Table 4-3.2 - Increase in Allowable Density for Moderate-Income Ownership Units

Percentage of Moderate-Income  Units

Percentage Density Bonus

10 5
11 6
12 7
13 8
14 9
15 10
16 11
17 12
18 13
19 14
20 15
21 16
22 17
23 18
24 19
25 20
26 21
27 22
28 23
29 24
30 25
31 26
32 27
33 28
34 29
35 30
 36 31
37 32
38 33
39 34
40 35
  1. The density bonus for a project for persons aged 55 and older, and those residing with them, shall be 20 percent.
  1. Density bonus of up to 50 percent in Central District. Projects in Central District subdistricts CD-1,  CD-2, CD-3, and CD-4 may be granted a density bonus of up to 50 percent above the maximum density, according to the following formula: for each additional percentage point of very low income units above 11 percent, a bonus of 2.5 percent may be granted, for each additional percentage point of low-income units above 20 percent, a bonus of 1.5 percent may be granted, and for each percentage point of moderate-income units above 40 percent, a bonus of one percent may be granted. A Conditional Use Permit (Section 17.61.050) shall be required for any density bonus exceeding 35 percent. 
  2. Bonuses not combined.  The bonuses that are available under this section shall not be combined.

  17.43.050 - Concessions and Other Incentives

  1. Concessions and other incentives. An applicant who utilizes the density bonus provisions of this chapter may request one or more concessions or other incentives as follows. (See Interpretation)

  1. One concession or other incentive for projects that include at least 5 percent of the units for very low-income households, 10 percent of the units for low-income households, or 10 percent of the units for moderate-income households when the units are available for sale to the public.

  2. Two concessions or other incentives for projects that include at least 10 percent of the units for very low-income households, 20 percent of the units for low-income households, or 20 percent of the units for moderate-income households when the units are available for sale to the public.

  3. Three concessions or other incentives for projects that include at least 15 percent of the units for very low-income households, 30 percent of the units for low-income households, or 30 percent of the units for moderate-income households when the units are available for sale to the public.

  4. Affordable Housing Concession Permit.  An applicant may submit an application for an Affordable Housing Concession Permit, for approval of a request for the concessions and other incentives.

  1. Application requirements.  An applicant for an Affordable Housing Concession Permit shall be filed in compliance with Chapter 17.60 (Application Filing and Processing).  The application shall be accompanied by the information identified in the Department handout for the Affordable Housing Concession application, including the specific economic information described in the handout.
  2. Procedure.  The procedure for an Affordable Housing Concession Permit shall be the same as for a Minor Variance (Section 17.61.080.C.3) Affordable Housing Concession Permits may be granted with approval by the Hearing Officer. The Hearing Officer may:
  1. Approve the concession and/or other incentive described in application for the Affordable Housing Concession Permit.

  2. Deny the concession and/or other incentive described in the application for the Affordable Housing Concession Permit.
  3. Approve one or more concession and/or other incentives and deny one or more other concessions and/or incentives, if more than one concession or other incentives is described in the application for the Affordable Housing Concession Permit.
  1. Findings.  A concession or other incentive shall be approved upon making the following findings.

  1. The concession or incentive is required in order for the designated units to be affordable.

  2.  The concession or incentive would not have a specific adverse impact on public health, public safety, or the physical environment, and would not have an adverse impact on a property that is listed in the California Register of Historical Resources, and for which there is no feasible method to satisfactorily mitigated or avoid the specific adverse impact, or adverse impact, without rendering the development unaffordable to low- and moderate-income households.  A specific adverse impact is a significant, quantifiable, direct, and unavoidable impact, based on objective, identified written public health or safety standards, policies, or conditions as they existed on the date the application was deemed complete.

17.43.060 – Waiver of Development Standards

  1. Waiver of Development Standards. If compliance with a development standard would physically preclude construction of a residential or mixed-use project utilizing a density bonus, and concession or incentive, in compliance with this Chapter, the applicant may submit a proposal for waiver or reduction of the development standard.
  2. Application requirements.  An application for a Waiver of a Development Standards Permit shall be filed in compliance with Chapter 17.60 (Application Filing and Processing). The application shall be accompanied by the information identified in the Department handout for Waiver of Development Standards Permit application, including the specific economic information described in the handout. 
  3. Procedure.   The procedure for a Waiver of Development Standards Permit shall be the same as for a Minor Variance (Section 17.61.080.C.3).  A Waiver of Development Standards Permit may be granted with approval by the Hearing Officer.  The Hearing Officer may:
  1. Approve the waiver and/or reduction of development standard; or

  2. Deny the waiver and/or reduction in development standard; or
  3. Approve one or more waivers and/or reductions and deny one or more other waivers and/or reductions, if more than one waiver or reduction is described in the application.

  1. Findings.  A Waiver of Development Standards Permit shall be approved upon making the following findings.

  1. The waiver or reduction in a development standard is required for construction of the development project at the density to which the project is entitled and with all concessions or other incentives approved for the project;

  2. The waiver or reduction in a development standard will not have a specific adverse impact on public health, public safety, or the physical environment, and will not have an adverse impact on a property that is listed in the California Register of Historical Resources, and for which there is no feasible method to satisfactorily mitigate or avoid the specific adverse impact, or adverse impact, without rendering the development unaffordable to low- and moderate-income households; and
  3. The waiver or reduction in a development standard is necessary because application of the development standards would physically preclude construction of a project utilizing a density bonus, concession or incentive.

17.43.070 – Floor Area Bonus and Concessions for Child Day-Care Center

  1. Floor area bonus or concession for inclusion of child day-care facility. An application for a development project that complies with the density bonus requirement of this section and that also includes a child day-care center that will be located on the premises of, as part of, or adjacent to, the project may request one additional bonus or concession as follows.

     

    1. Additional net floor area for housing units that is equal to or greater than the net floor area in the child day-care center.

    2. A concession that contributes significantly to the economic feasibility of the construction of the child day-care center, in addition to a concession granted for designated dwelling unit.

  2. Application requirements.   An application for a Child Day-Care Bonus or Concession Permit shall be filed in compliance with Chapter 17.60 (Application Filing and Processing). The application shall be accompanied by the information identified in the Department handout for a Child Day-Care Bonus or Concession Permit application, including the specific economic information described in the handout.

  3. Procedure.  The procedure for a Child Day-Care Bonus or Concession Permit shall same as for a Minor Variance (Section 17.61.080.C.3) Child Day-Care Bonus or Concession Permits may be granted with approval by the Hearing Officer. The Hearing Officer may:

     

    1. Approve the bonus or concession described in the application for the Child Day-Care Bonus or Concession Permit, if the findings below are made.

    2. Deny the bonus or incentive described in the application for the Child Day-Care Bonus or Concession Permit, if the necessary findings cannot be made.

  4. Findings. A child day-care bonus or concession shall be approved upon making the following findings.

     

    1. The bonus or concession would contribute significantly to the economic feasibility of the construction of the child day-care center.

    2. The bonus or concession would not have a specific adverse impact on public health, public safety, or the physical environment, and would not have an adverse impact on a property that is listed in the California Register of Historical Resources, and for which there is no feasible method to satisfactorily mitigate or avoid the specific adverse impact, or adverse impact, without rendering the development unaffordable to low- and moderate-income households. A specific adverse impact is a significant, quantifiable, direct, and unavoidable impact, based on objective, identified written public health or safety standards, policies, or conditions as they existed on the date the application was deemed complete.

  5. Conditions of Approval. The child day-care center shall comply with conditions of approval as follows.

     

    1. The child day-care center shall remain in operation for a period of time that is equal to or longer than the period during which the designated dwelling units are required to be affordable.

    2. Of the children who attend the child day-care center, the children of very low income households, lower income households, or families of moderate income shall equal a percentage that is equal to or greater than the percentage of dwelling units that are required for very low or low-income households or families of moderate income.

 17.43.080 - Bonus for Donation of Land

  1. Bonus for Donation of Land.  An applicant for a tentative subdivision map, parcel map, or other residential development approval who donates land to the City shall be entitled to a bonus in residential density for the entire development above the density allowable under this Title and the Land use Element of the General Plan.

  2. Requirements for Bonus.  A bonus for the donation of land shall meet the following requirements. 

  1. The applicant shall donate and transfer the land no later than the date of approval of the final tract or parcel map, or application for the construction of residential units.

  2. The developable acreage and zoning classification of the land being transferred shall be sufficient to permit construction of units affordable to very low income households in an amount not less than 10 percent of the number of residential units of the proposed development.

  3. The transferred land shall be at least one acre in size or of sufficient size to permit development of at least 40 units, has the appropriate general plan designation, is appropriately zoned for development as affordable housing, and is or will be served by adequate public facilities and infrastructure.  The land shall have appropriate zoning and development standards to make the development of the affordable units feasible.  No later than the date of approval of the final subdivision map, parcel map, or of the residential development, the transferred land shall have all of the permits and approvals, other than concept design review and building permits, necessary for development of the very low income housing units on the transferred land.

  4. The transferred land and the affordable units shall be subject to a deed restriction ensuring continued affordability of the units, consistent with Section 17.43.100 (Enforcement of Affordability).

  5. The land shall be transferred to the City of Pasadena or to a housing developer approved by the City of Pasadena.

  6. The transferred land shall be within the boundary of the proposed development or, with approval of the Director, within one-quarter mile of the boundary of the proposed development.

  7. A bonus shall not be granted unless a source of funding for the very low income units has been identified not later than the date of approval of the final parcel or tract map or application for the construction of residential units.

  1. Density bonus of up to 35 percent.  The density bonus for donation of land for very low-income units shall be calculated as follows.

Table 4-3.3 - Increase in Allowable Density for Donation

of Land For Very-Low Units

Percent of Very Low-Income Units

Percentage Density Bonus

10 15
11 16
12 17
13 18
14 19
15 20
16 21
17 22
18 23
19 24
20 25
21 26
22 27
23 28
24 29
25 30
26 31
27 32
28 33
29 34
30 35

 

  1. Bonuses may be combined.  A bonus for the donation of land may be combined with a bonus granted under Section 17.43.040.

17.43.090 - Alternative Parking Standards

  1. An applicant may request the following alternative parking requirements.

Number of Bedrooms

On-Site Parking Spaces

0 - 1 1
2 - 3 2
4 or more 2.5
  1. If the total number of parking spaces required for the development is other than a whole number, the number shall be rounded up to the next whole number.  A development may provide on-site parking through tandem parking or uncovered parking on the project site.

17.43.100 – Enforcement of Affordability

  1. Low and very low income: covenant for 30 years.  A covenant or other document satisfactory to the City Attorney shall be recorded before issuance of a building permit, which shall ensure that the low and very low income density bonus units are at all times rented or sold to, and remain affordable at, the applicable income level for at least 30 years.  If a density bonus unit is also being used to satisfy the requirements of Chapter 17.42, the longer term of affordability shall apply. 

  2. Moderate income: recapture of financial interest.  A covenant or other document satisfactory to the City Attorney shall be recorded before issuance of a building permit, which shall ensure that the moderate income density bonus units are initially occupied by persons or families at a moderate income level.  Moderate income units may be offered for subsequent sale to an above-moderate income purchaser; provided that the sale shall result in a recapture by the City, or its designee, of a financial interest in the unit equal to:

  1. Difference between price and value.  The difference between the initial moderate income level sales price and the appraised value at the time of the initial sale; and

  2. Proportionate share of appreciation.  A proportionate share of any appreciation.

  1. Forfeiture of funds.  Any individual who rents a unit in violation of this Chapter shall be required to forfeit all rents above the applicable affordable rate; any individual who sells a unit in violation of this Chapter shall be required to forfeit all profits from the sale exceeding the difference between the sale price and the applicable affordable sales price.  Recovered funds shall be deposited in to the Inclusionary Housing Trust Fund.

17.43.110 – Administrative Procedures

The City Manager or her/his designee may adopt administrative procedures for implementation of this Chapter.

Chapter 17.44 - Landscaping

Sections:

17.44.010 - Purpose of Chapter
17.44.020 - Applicability
17.44.030 - Preliminary Landscape Plan
17.44.040 - Final Landscape and Irrigation Plan
17.44.050 - Landscape Documentation Package
17.44.060 - Landscape Location Requirements
17.44.070 - Landscape Standards
17.44.080 - Maintenance of Landscaping
17.44.090 - Tree Retention
17.44.100 - Street Trees

17.44.010 - Purpose of Chapter

In addition to the general purposes identified in Chapter 17.10 (Enactment and Applicability of Zoning Code), the specific purposes of this Chapter are to:

  1. Provide general landscape requirements common to various zoning districts;
  2. Encourage quality landscape designs;
  3. Enhance the appearance of all development by requiring the design, installation, and proper maintenance of landscaping and by providing standards relating to the quality, quantity, and functional aspects of landscaping and landscape screening;
  4. Ensure that new landscaping would be consistent with any applicable design guidelines and that important resources (e.g., large specimen plants) are retained;
  5. Protect public health, safety, and welfare by minimizing the impact of various forms of physical and visual pollution, controlling soil erosion, screening incompatible land uses, preserving the integrity of existing residential neighborhoods, and enhancing pedestrian and vehicular traffic and safety;
  6. Encourage the efficient use of irrigation, appropriate plant materials, and regular maintenance of landscaped areas; and
  7. Ensure the protection of landmark, native, and specimen trees to the extent specified in Chapter 8.52 (City Trees and Tree Protection Ordinance) of the Municipal Code.

17.44.020 - Applicability

  1. Landscaping required. All projects shall provide and maintain landscaping in compliance with the provisions of this Chapter.
  2. Landscaping plans subject to review.

    1. Submittal of plans required. Final landscape and irrigation plan, and plans for the ornamental use of water, including fountains and ponds, shall be submitted to the Zoning Administrator for review for compliance with the requirements of this Chapter.
    2. Approval by Zoning Administrator required. The landscaping shall not be installed until the applicant receives approval of the final landscape and irrigation plan by the Zoning Administrator and any applicable permits have been issued.
    3. Changes to final plans. Changes to the approved final landscape and irrigation plans that affect the character or quantity of the plant material or irrigation system design are required to be resubmitted for approval before installation.
  3. No construction resulting in injury or removal of trees. No construction shall be allowed that results in the injury or removal of a landmark, native, or specimen tree, as those terms are defined in Chapter 8.52, unless the appropriate findings are made in compliance with Chapter 8.52 (City Trees and Tree Protection Ordinance) of the Municipal Code.

17.44.030 - Preliminary Landscape Plan

  1. Plan required.

    1. A preliminary landscape plan shall be submitted as part of an application for a land use entitlement.
    2. Where no entitlement is required, the final landscape and irrigation plan shall be submitted to the Zoning Administrator in order to fulfill any landscape requirement identified by this Zoning Code before issuance of a Building Permit.
  2. Intent of preliminary landscape plan.

    1. The preliminary landscape plan shall meet the purpose of this Chapter by exhibiting a design layout that demonstrates the desired landscaping program in terms of function, location, size/scale, theme, and similar attributes
    2. The preliminary landscape plan shall provide the Zoning Administrator with a clear understanding of the landscaping program before preparation of the detailed final landscape and irrigation plan.
    3. The preliminary landscape plan shall meet the intent of Chapter 8.52 (City Trees and Tree Protection Ordinance) of the Municipal Code.
  3. Landscape architect required. Preliminary landscape and irrigation plans shall be prepared by a California-registered landscape architect, or the architect that designed the on-site structures and improvements.
  4. Waiver of requirements. The Zoning Administrator may waive the requirement for a preliminary landscape plan for building additions and remodelings where no, or only minor, alterations to the existing landscape or topography are proposed.

17.44.040 - Final Landscape and Irrigation Plan

This Section provides standards for preparation and submittal of the final landscape and irrigation plan.

  1. Submittal of plan.

    1. A final landscape and irrigation plan (e.g., construction documents) for on-site landscaping shall be submitted following approval of the land use entitlement application by the Zoning Administrator.
    2. Where no entitlement is required, the final landscape and irrigation plan shall be submitted to the Zoning Administrator in order to fulfill any landscape requirement identified by this Zoning Code, before issuance of a Building Permit.
  2. Waiver of plan requirements. The Zoning Administrator may waive the requirement for the preparation and submittal of a final landscape and irrigation plan for building additions and remodelings where no, or only minor, alterations to the existing landscape or topography are proposed.
  3. Landscape architect required. Final landscape and irrigation plans shall be prepared by a California-registered landscape architect, or the architect that designed the on-site structures and improvements.
  4. Landscape plan contents. The landscape plan shall be drawn on project base sheets, be fully dimensioned, and include all of the information identified in Subsection 17.44.050.B (Landscape design plan) below.
  5. Irrigation plan contents. A fully dimensioned irrigation plan shall be drawn on project base sheets separate from the landscape design plan. The scale and format shall be the same as the landscape design plan. The irrigation design plan shall include all of the information identified in Subsection 17.44.050.C (Irrigation design plan) below.

17.44.050 - Landscape Documentation Package

  1. Applicability. A landscape documentation package conforming to the requirements of this Section shall be submitted for review and approval by the Zoning Administrator for all projects subject to the requirements of this Chapter.
  2. Landscape design plan. A landscape design plan meeting the following requirements shall be submitted as part of the landscape documentation package.

    1. Plant selection and grouping. Any plants may be used in the landscape, providing the plants meet the requirements below.

      1. Plants having similar water use shall be grouped together in distinct hydrozones.
      2. Plants shall be selected based upon their adaptability to the climatic, geologic, and topographical conditions of the site.
      3. Existing trees shall be preserved in compliance with Section 17.44.090 (Tree Retention).
    2. Content of plans. Landscape plans shall include all of the necessary information as determined by the Zoning Administrator. At a minimum, the plans shall include the following:

      1. Plant name;
      2. Plant quantity;
      3. Plant size;
      4. Irrigation system; and
      5. Plans for tree retention and removal.
    3. Water features. Only recirculating water shall be used for decorative water features.
  3. Irrigation design plan. An irrigation design plan meeting the following requirements shall be submitted as part of the landscape documentation package.

    1. Irrigation design criteria.

      1. Runoff and overspray. Soil types and infiltration rates shall be considered when designing irrigation systems. All irrigation systems shall be designed to avoid runoff, low-head drainage, overspray or other similar conditions where water flows onto adjacent property, nonirrigated areas, walks, roadways, or structures. Proper irrigation equipment and schedules shall be used to closely match application rates to infiltration rates in order to minimize runoff.
      2. Special attention required. Special attention shall be given to avoid runoff on slopes and to avoid overspray in landscaped areas with a width of less than 10 feet.
      3. Irrigation efficiency. For the purpose of determining the maximum water allowance, irrigation efficiency is presumed to be 0.625. Irrigation systems shall be designed, maintained, and managed to meet or exceed 0.625 efficiency.
    2. Equipment.

      1. Water meters. Separate landscape water meters shall be installed for any project with a landscaped area greater than 5,000 square feet.
      2. Automatic controllers. Automatic control systems shall be required for all irrigation systems and shall be able to accommodate all aspects of the design.
      3. Drip irrigation. The use of drip irrigation shall be considered whenever appropriate.
      4. Plant groupings. Plants that require different amounts of water shall be irrigated by separate valves. If one valve is used for a given area, only plants with similar water use shall be used in that area. Anti-drain (check) valves shall be installed at strategic points to prevent low-head drainage.
      5. Sprinkler heads. Heads and emitters shall have consistent application rates within each control valve circuit. Sprinkler heads shall be selected for proper area coverage, application rate, operating pressure, adjustment capability, and ease of maintenance.
      6. Rain-sensing devices. Rain sensing override devices shall be required for any project with a landscaped area greater than 10,000 square feet.
      7. Moisture-sensing devices. Soil moisture sensing devices shall be required for any project with a landscaped area greater than 10,000 square feet.
  4. Precise grading plan. When required by the Director, a precise grading plan satisfying the following conditions shall be submitted as part of the landscape documentation package.

    1. A precise grading plan shall be drawn on project base sheets. It shall be separate from, but use the same format as, the landscape design plan; and
    2. The precise grading plan shall indicate finished configurations and elevations of the landscaped area, including the height of graded slopes, drainage patterns, pad elevations, and finished grade.

17.44.060 - Landscape Location Requirements

Landscaping shall be provided as specified in this Section.

  1. Residential projects. Each residential project shall be landscaped, irrigated, and maintained in compliance with the requirements of this Chapter.  

    1. New single-family projects.

      1. A final landscape plan shall be submitted for review and approval by the Zoning Administrator before a Building Permit is issued.
      2. The landscape plan shall contain the specimen or common names of plants, sizes, locations on the site, and the number of each variety being used.
      3. The landscape plan shall include the front and any corner side setback areas.
      4. All landscape planting areas shall be provided with a permanent underground irrigation system.
    2. Multi-family projects.

      1. For City of Gardens and Urban Housing projects, a preliminary landscape plan shall be submitted for review and approval by the Zoning Administrator before a Building Permit is issued.
      2. For City of Gardens projects, the landscape plan shall comply with the applicable requirements identified in Section 17.22.060 (RM District General Development Standards).
  2. Nonresidential projects. The total area of each nonresidential project not devoted to lot coverage and paving shall be landscaped, irrigated, and maintained in compliance with the requirements of this Chapter.

    1. A preliminary landscape plan shall be submitted for review and approval by the Zoning Administrator before a Building Permit is issued.
    2. The landscape plan shall include all uncovered areas.
    3. All landscape planting areas shall be provided with a permanent underground irrigation system.
  3. All setback areas shall be landscaped.

    1. Landscaping of setbacks. All setback and open space areas required by this Zoning Code shall be landscaped, except where a required setback is occupied by a sidewalk or driveway, or where a required setback is screened from public view and it is determined by the Zoning Administrator that landscaping is not necessary to fulfill the purposes of this Section.
    2. Modification by Design Commission. The Design Commission may modify this requirement to landscape all setback and open space areas. The modification may only be approved if the Design Commission finds that the project provides:

      1. For outdoor dining activities, special paving, or other examples of exceptional architectural quality in the project's design;
      2. A higher overall quality of landscape design than would normally be expected for a similar development project; and
      3. A superior landscape maintenance plan.
  4. All unused areas shall be landscaped.

    1. All areas of a project site not intended for a specific use, including pad sites held for future development, shall be landscaped unless it is determined by the Zoning Administrator that landscaping is not necessary to fulfill the purposes of this Chapter. This requirement does not apply to the side or rear yard of a single-family residence.
    2. The Zoning Administrator shall determine the level or intensity of landscaping to be provided for vacant pad sites based on an approved phasing plan.
  5. Parking areas. Parking areas shall be landscaped in compliance with Chapter 17.46 (Parking and Loading).

17.44.070 - Landscape Standards

Landscape areas and materials for commercial, industrial, hillside, and multi-family projects shall be designed, installed, and properly maintained in compliance with the following. This Section shall not apply to the RS and RM-12 zoning districts.

  1. General design standards. The following features shall be incorporated into the design of the proposed landscape and shown on the required landscape plans.

    1. Integral part of project design. Landscaping shall be planned as an integral part of the overall project design and not simply be located in excess space after parking areas and structures have been planned.
    2. Consideration for access. Pedestrian access to sidewalks and structures shall be considered in the design of all landscaped areas.
    3. Minimum width. Landscaped areas shall not be less than five feet in width.
    4. Concrete curb. For nonresidential projects, landscaping adjacent to driveways and parking areas shall be protected from vehicle damage through the provision of a minimum six-inch high and six-inch wide concrete curb or other suitable type of barrier as approved by the Zoning Administrator.
  2. Plant materials. Plant materials shall be selected and installed to comply with the following requirements:

    1. Mix of materials. An appropriate mix of plant sizes and materials shall be provided.
    2. Drought tolerant species. Plant materials shall emphasize drought-tolerant and/or native species.
    3. Tree requirements. Trees shall be planted in areas of public view. The clustering of trees is encouraged.

      1. Size at planting. Mature specimen trees (e.g., 24-, 36-, and 48-inch box) shall be provided to ensure variety and emphasis at main focal areas.
      2. Staking. All trees shall be staked or guyed (on a case-by-case basis) subject to the approval of the Zoning Administrator.
    4. Performance standards. The trees and shrubs shall be carefully selected and properly planted and maintained so that they:

      1. Do not interfere with service lines and traffic safety sight areas;
      2. Protect the basic rights of adjacent property owners, particularly the right to solar access; and
      3. Prevent physical damage to the adjoining public improvements.
    5. Ground cover. Ground cover shall be of live plant material. Limited quantities of bark, colored rock, gravel, and similar materials may be used in combination with a living ground cover.
    6. Accommodating existing trees. The Zoning Administrator may modify the requirements within this Subsection in order to accommodate existing trees located on-site or within the public rights-of-way.
  3. Standards for the City of Gardens. For projects utilizing multi-family residential development standards in compliance with Section 17.22.060 (RM District General Development Standards).

    1. Preferred ground covers. Preferred ground covers in the main garden and the front setback areas are ones that can be walked on and that utilize water-conserving plant materials.
    2. Design of landscaped areas.

      1. Landscaped areas and plant replacement shall be ordered and formal rather than random and scattered.
      2. Trees and shrubs shall be massed in groups creating containment of the garden space.
    3. Turf standards.

      1. Turf shall be limited to a maximum of 20 percent of the total landscaped area.
      2. Turf shall be excluded from areas difficult to irrigate (e.g., narrow pathways, parkways less than five feet in width, sidewalk strips, slopes, etc.)
      3. The main garden is the appropriate location for turf.
      4. Low-water usage turf or warm‑season turf is recommended.
      5. Flowering ornamentals that are not drought tolerant shall be included in the calculations for the turf area limitations.
    4. Water elements. The incorporation of fountains, pools, and other water elements into the main garden is encouraged as are other decorative elements (e.g., tile and iron work). Water elements shall be designed to conserve water.
    5. Planting of trees in front setback.

      1. Substantial trees (24-inch box or larger) are strongly encouraged in front setback areas of 2,000 square feet or more.
      2. In cases where the front setback is located over fully subterranean parking, tree wells with an inside diameter of at least six feet shall be provided.
      3. The minimum tree size at planting shall be 15 gallons.
  4. Standards for Urban Housing. For projects using the Urban Housing standards of in compliance with Section 17.50.350 (Urban Housing).

    1. Landscaping shall be a combination of trees, shrubs, groundcover and turf.
    2. All areas not devoted to building coverage, walkways, or driveways shall be landscaped.
  5. Commercial and industrial zoning districts.

    1. Landscaping of setback areas. At least 50 percent of each front and/or corner side setback area shall be landscaped in compliance with this Chapter.
    2. Preliminary landscape plan required. A preliminary landscape plan, prepared in compliance with Section 17.44.030, above, for all required setback areas shall be submitted to the Zoning Administrator for approval before the issuance of the required Building Permit.
    3. Requirements may be modified. The landscaping requirements of this Subparagraph may be modified by the Design Commission in compliance with Subparagraph 17.44.060.C.2 (Modification by Design Commission), above.
  6. Additional standards for development projects within the HD overlay district.

    1. Landscape plan required. Each project that requires a Building Permit or land use permit shall also require the approval of a landscape plan by the Zoning Administrator and the Fire Chief.

      1. Plan content. The plan shall include all information required by the Department, shall be designed to ensure slope stability, fire safety and design quality, and shall also include a tree removal and retention plan with the following information.

        (1) Identification of the extent of vegetation removal required for site preparation and development; and

        (2) The location and species of individual trees of four‑inch caliper or more. Maximum effort should be exercised to retain existing trees in place. All trees identified on the City's Protected Tree Inventory shall be shown.

      2. Tree removal and replacement. For each native tree or shrub larger than four‑inch caliper that is removed, a 15‑gallon replacement tree shall be planted on the site. For trees in excess of eight‑inch caliper, the replacement tree shall be 24‑inch box or larger, or a combination of sizes to be approved by the Zoning Administrator. The use of native oaks is encouraged. In addition to these requirements, all requirements of the City's Tree Protection Ordinance and Chapter 17.44 (Landscaping) shall be met.
      3. Waiver of plan. The Zoning Administrator may waive the landscape plan requirement for additions and remodeling where no or only minor alterations to the existing landscape or topography are proposed.
      4. Effect of approved plan. All landscaping shall be planted and maintained in compliance with the approved plan and Chapter 17.44 (Landscaping).
    2. Plant materials and location. Landscaping shall emphasize the use and management of native plants. Care should be taken in plant selection and maintenance to avoid plants of high flammability either due to their intrinsic quality or the cumulative effect of dense planting near structures.

      1. All landscaping shall be of low-fuel volume plant material. The plant selection shall also emphasize the use of drought-tolerant species consistent with the safety requirement and approved by the Fire Chief.
      2. All native groundcover and shrub materials to be planted within 30 feet of all structures shall be low-profile evergreen plants.
      3. Trees and nonnative evergreen shrubs shall not be located within 10 feet of chimneys and should not otherwise present unusual fire hazards. The use of invasive plant species shall be discouraged.

        The plant palette for landscaping the perimeter of a site shall blend as much as possible with the natural plant palette consistent with safety requirements. A list of suggested plant materials shall be kept on file by the Zoning Administrator and shall be available for inspection by the public.

      4. Landscaping shall be designed to screen the view of downslope building elevations. The landscape plan for the residential dwelling shall specifically consider the downslope elevation and demonstrate that portions of elevations below the bottommost floor are screened from view. Downslope elevations visible from any adjacent property or public right‑of‑way shall be landscaped with a selection of shrubs and trees that screen the downslope portion from view to the satisfaction of the Zoning Administrator and in compliance with Chapter 17.44 (Landscaping).
      5. Trees shall be planted so that existing views from surrounding properties are preserved.
  7. Statement of surety. When required by the Zoning Administrator for the issuance of a temporary Certificate of Occupancy, a statement of surety in the form of cash, performance bond, letter of credit, or certificate of deposit, in an amount equal to 120 percent of the total value of all plant materials, irrigation, installation, and maintenance shall be posted with the City.

17.44.080 - Maintenance of Landscaping

  1. Maintenance required.

    1. Where a landscape plan is required, all installed landscaping shall be permanently maintained in compliance with this Section.
    2. Once installed, no landscaping shall be removed unless it is replaced with landscaping of a similar design, character, and coverage at maturity.
    3. Once installed, no landscaping shall be allowed to die; replacement shall occur in a timely manner.
  2. Maintenance defined. Maintenance shall consist of regular fertilizing, clearing of debris and weeds, monitoring for pests and disease, mowing, pruning, the removal and timely replacement of dead or dying plants, spraying, treating for disease or injury, watering, the repair and timely replacement of irrigation systems and integrated architectural features, or any other similar act(s) which promotes growth, health, beauty, and the life of plants, shrubs, trees, or turf.

17.44.090 - Tree Retention

  1. Maximum effort to retain trees. Where healthy trees exist on a site, maximum effort shall be given for their retention.
  2. Compliance with Chapter 8.52. All existing trees shall be protected during construction in compliance with Chapter 8.52 (City Trees and Tree Protection Ordinance) of the Municipal Code. (See Protected Species List).
  3. Minimum retention requirements. To ensure that the tree retention is successful, the following requirements shall be met:

    1. All grading around existing trees shall be done by hand.
    2. Cutting through woody roots shall not be allowed.
    3. All foundations shall step over major roots.
    4. No difference in grade shall be allowed at the base of the trees.
  4. Modification of development standards. The review authority or Director, if there is no other review authority, may modify the development standards or accept alternative solutions to assist in the preservation of trees protected in compliance with Chapter 8.52 (City Trees and Tree Protection Ordinance) or street trees. Modifications may include a reduction to garden requirements, guest parking requirements, location of driveways and building height limits. The review authority may approve the modification of up to two development standards after first finding that:
  1. The applicant investigated alternative site designs and building footprints using existing developments standards;
  2. The trees to be preserved are in good health and condition (taking into account species and longevity as determined by a certified arborist;
  3. The project includes a well integrated and thoughtful design solution that enhances the property and its surroundings;
  4. The project is not injurious to adjacent properties or uses, or detrimental to environmental quality, quality of life, or the health, safety, and welfare of the public; and
  5. The project is consistent with the objectives and policies of the applicable Design Guidelines and the Citywide Design Principles in the General Plan.

17.44.100 - Street Trees

  1. Street tree requirement. Street trees are required whenever new structures are constructed on vacant lots within the City. The selected street trees shall be of the species required by the City's Street Tree Plan.
  2. Location requirements. Street trees shall be located in compliance with the requirements of the Department of Public Works.
  3. Street tree retention or removal.

    1. Removal of street trees. Street trees shall not be removed without first obtaining permission from the Department of Public Works.
    2. Reshaping of driveway preferable. The reshaping of driveways to avoid or accommodate street trees is preferable.
    3. Consistent with prevailing street pattern. When removal is absolutely necessary, trees shall be replaced in a manner consistent with the prevailing pattern on the street, as determined by the Department of Public Works.
  4. Requirements for new developments.

    1. One 24-inch box tree required. Any new development shall be required to provide a minimum of one 24‑inch box tree planted in the parkway, or in the sidewalk area where there is no parkway, at the same spacing as existing trees or at 20‑foot intervals if there are no existing trees, unless the City's Street Tree Plan specifies a different spacing requirement. The actual number of trees shall be determined by the Director of Public Works.
    2. Tree species. The tree species shall be the same as the most prevalent tree type on the block unless the City's Street Tree Plan specifies a different species.
    3. Removal of healthy mature trees prohibited. Mature healthy street trees shall not be removed unless the removal is ordered by the Director of Public Works in compliance with Chapter 8.52 (City Trees and Tree Protection Ordinance) of the Municipal Code.

Chapter 17.46 - Parking and Loading

Sections:

17.46.010 - Purpose of Chapter
17.46.020 - Basic Requirements for Off-Street Parking and Loading
17.46.030 - Alternate Means for Providing Required Parking
17.46.040 - Number of Off-Street Parking Spaces Required
17.46.050 - Shared Parking
17.46.060 - Participation in Public Parking Assessment District
17.46.070 - Reduced Parking in Senior Citizens' Housing Developments
17.46.080 - Tandem Parking
17.46.090 - Compact Parking Spaces Prohibited
17.46.100 - Parking Spaces for the Handicapped
17.46.110 - Parking Space Dimensions
17.46.120 - Application of Dimensional Requirements
17.46.130 - Aisle Dimensions
17.46.140 - Parking Access from Street
17.46.150 - Driveway Design, Widths, and Clearances
17.46.160 - Driveway Configuration for Multi-Family Projects
17.46.170 - Driveway Visibility
17.46.180 - Driveway Location and Frequency for Multi-Family Projects
17.46.190 - Garage Door and Grill Standards for Multi-Family Projects
17.46.200 - Driveway Encroachments for Multi-Family Projects
17.46.210 - Parking Area Screening B Walls and Fences
17.46.220 - Outdoor Parking Area Lighting
17.46.230 - Parking Lot Landscaping
17.46.240 - Parking Structure Yards and Landscaping
17.46.250 - Central District Additional Design Standards for Parking
17.46.260 - Number, Location, and Design of Off-Street Loading Spaces
17.46.270 - Ramps
17.46.280 - Driveway Paving for Multi-Family Projects
17.46.290 - Trip Reduction Requirements for Residential and Nonresidential Projects
17.46.300 - Paving
17.46.310 - Electric Recharge Stations
17.46.320 - Bicycle Parking Standards

17.46.010 - Purpose of Chapter

In addition to the general purposes listed in Chapter 17.10 (Enactment and Applicability of Zoning Code), the purpose of the off‑street parking and loading regulations are to:

  1. Progressively alleviate or prevent traffic congestion and shortages of curbside parking spaces;
  2. Ensure that adequate off‑street parking and loading facilities are provided for new land uses in proportion to the need for the facilities created by each use and in compliance with any applicable design guidelines;
  3. Establish parking standards for commercial uses consistent with need and with the feasibility of providing parking on specific commercial sites;
  4. Ensure that off‑street parking and loading facilities are designed in a manner that will ensure efficiency, protect the public safety, and, where appropriate, insulate surrounding land uses from adverse impacts; and
  5. In multi-family projects subject to Section 17.22.080 (RM District Garden Requirements) to:

    1. Minimize the visibility of parking from streets and dwellings and give prominence to main gardens within projects;
    2. Minimize and conceal negative aspects (e.g., large areas of paving, long unembellished walls, and visibility of ventilation grilles and garage doors); and
    3. Encourage easy access from the parking lot, through the main garden, to the individual dwelling units.

17.46.020 - Basic Requirements for Off‑Street Parking and Loading

  1. Applicability. Every use, including a change or expansion of a use or structure, shall have appropriately maintained off-street parking and loading spaces or areas in compliance with the regulations identified in this Chapter. A use shall not be commenced and structures shall not be occupied until improvements required by this Chapter are satisfactorily completed.
  2. Parking and loading spaces to be permanent. Parking and loading spaces shall be permanently available, marked, and properly maintained for parking or loading purposes for the use they are intended to serve.
  3. Maintenance. Parking spaces, driveways, maneuvering aisles, turnaround areas, and landscaping areas shall be maintained free of dust, graffiti, and litter; and striping, paving, walls, light standards, and all other facilities shall be maintained in good condition.
  4. Vehicles for sale. Vehicles or trailers shall not be parked upon a public or private street, parking lot, or public or private property for the purpose of displaying the vehicle or trailer for sale, hire, or rental, unless the property is appropriately zoned, the vendor is licensed to transact the applicable business at that location, and the vendor has obtained all of the appropriate land use approvals.
  5. When required. At the time of initial occupancy of a site, construction of a new structure, enlargement of a site or structure, a change to a use classification that requires a greater parking requirement, off‑street parking facilities shall be provided in compliance with this Chapter.
  6. Nonconforming parking or loading. An existing use of land shall not be deemed to be a nonconforming use simply because of the lack of off-street parking or loading facilities required by this Chapter. However, a structure with nonconforming parking that increases the number of parking or loading spaces shall not thereafter reduce that number of spaces unless the number of spaces after the reduction complies with the minimum requirements of this Chapter.
  7. Spaces required for enlargement.

    1. The number of off-street parking or loading spaces required for an enlargement of an existing use or structure shall be in addition to the number of spaces existing before the enlargement unless the preexisting number is greater than or equal to the number required by this Chapter, in which case the number of spaces in excess of the identified minimum shall be counted in determining the required number of spaces.
    2. The required number of parking spaces for that portion of a structure existing before the enlargement shall not be increased as a result of the enlargement unless a new use with a greater parking ratio than the previous use is proposed.
  8. Spaces required for multiple uses. If more than one use is located on a site, including multiple uses under single ownership, the number of off‑street parking and loading spaces to be provided shall be equal to the sum of the requirements identified for each individual use, unless shared parking arrangements are approved by the Zoning Administrator in compliance with Section 17.46.050 (Shared Parking), below.
  9. Location and ownership.

    1. Parking location for residential uses within residential zoning districts. Except as otherwise provided in this Chapter, all off-street parking in residential zoning districts required to serve a residential use shall be located on the same site as the use served but shall not be located within a required front or corner side setback, except as allowed by this Chapter (e.g., subterranean parking).
    2. Parking location for residential uses within commercial and CD zoning districts.

      1. New residential or mixed-use development projects.

        (1) At least one space for each unit shall be located on-site so that tenants can park near their unit.

        (2) All other required parking spaces may be located off-site if the location is in compliance with the distance requirements identified in Table 4-4 (Maximum Distances for Off‑Site Parking) below for customer/visitor spaces, and there is a long-term parking lease agreement in compliance with Subparagraphs 4., 5., and 6.,below.

      2. Converted residential or mixed-use development projects. All required parking spaces may be located off-site if the location is in compliance with the distance requirements identified in Table 4-4 (Maximum Distances for Off‑Site Parking), below, for customer/visitor spaces, and there is a long-term parking lease agreement in compliance with Subparagraphs 4., 5., and 6.,below.
    3. Parking for nonresidential uses. In any zoning district, parking required to serve a nonresidential use may be on the same or a different site under the same or different ownership as the use served, provided the parking shall be within the maximum distances identified in Table 4-4 (Maximum Distances for Off‑Site Parking) of the use served measured from the nearest corner of the parking facility to the entrance of the use served via the shortest pedestrian route.
    4. Lease agreement required. Required nonresidential parking may be located off‑site from the use which it serves, subject to the approval of the Zoning Administrator of a lease agreement providing that the off‑site parking shall be available when the use commences and continuing so long as the use is in effect.
    5. Notification of pending termination of lease required. The lease shall contain a provision requiring that the Zoning Administrator be notified in writing at least 30 days before termination of the lease.
    6. Recorded lease required. A Certificate of Occupancy for the use shall not be issued until the lease has been recorded with the County Recorder and a copy filed with the Zoning Administrator.
    7. Recorded covenant required. When the off-site parking is provided on a lot that is not contiguous with the lot where the use is located, and both are owned by the same entity, a covenant shall be recorded that ties the lot providing the parking to the lot where the use requiring the parking is located.

      Table 4-4 — Maximum Distances for Off-Site Parking

      Zoning District

      Customer/Visitor Spaces

      Employee Spaces

      CD zoning districts

      1,000 feet

      1,500 feet

      All other zoning districts

      500 feet

      1,000 feet

    8. Customer/visitor parking. Customer/visitor parking as a percentage of total parking spaces shall be in compliance with Table 4-5.

      Table 4-5 — Customer/Visitor Parking as a Percentage of Total Spaces

      Type of Use

      Percentage of Customer Parking

      Hotel, motel, and bed and breakfast accommodations.

      90

      Manufacturing, distribution and wholesaling (nonretail).

      10

      Offices other than public, medical, banks and savings and loans, other financial services.

      15

      All other nonresidential.

      80

  10. Small residential additions exempt from two-car covered parking requirement. Small additions (with a maximum aggregate total of 150 square feet) may be made to existing residences without requiring the two-car covered parking requirement of Section 17.46.040 (Number of Off-Street Parking and Loading Spaces Required) below. However, any addition to an existing residence, including the construction of an accessory structure (e.g., a pool house or workshop) of over 150 square feet shall require the construction of a two-car covered parking structure. (See Interpretations)
  11. Location requirements for multi-family projects. A project that is subject to the multi-family development standards of Section 17.22.060 (RM District General Development Standards) or 17.50.350 (Urban Housing) shall comply with the following parking location standards.

    1. Parking at grade. Parking at grade shall be located in the rear 40 percent of the site.

      1. Through the Design Review process, at grade parking may be located beyond the rear 40 percent of the site but shall not be located within the front yard setback.
      2. If the project contains affordable housing in conjunction with a density bonus in compliance with Chapter 17.43 (Density Bonus), then approval shall be through the Concessions and other Incentives process (17.43.050).
      3. On double frontage lots, no parking shall be located in the front 30 percent of the site along each street frontage.
      4. On corner lots, the narrowest street frontage shall be used in determining the rear 40 percent of the site. In no case shall surface parking or parking with dwelling unit over be located in any required front or side setback.
      5. The parking area shall not be visible from the main garden, and it shall be screened from the street or at grade from an adjacent lot by building walls, or freestanding walls, or landscaped elements at least six feet in height.
      6. The parking area shall be screened from these areas by building volume or by a wall at least six feet in height.
    2. Tuck under parking. Tuck under parking is unenclosed parking located below the unit where parking is accessed from an open parking drive, at grade or below.  Tuck under parking shall be restricted to the rear 40 percent of the site and openings to the parking spaces shall not be visible from the street or from an adjacent property.
    3. Detached dwelling units. A detached single‑family dwelling unit located in the front 60 percent of the site may incorporate parking; provided, the:

      1. Parking is provided within the building envelope and not in a separate structure.
      2. Parking is limited to two spaces and is for the exclusive use of the residents of the dwelling and not for residents of other portions of the project.
      3. Parking is fully enclosed and screened by opaque garage doors.
      4. Garage doors do not face the street.
      5. Widening or branching of the main drive to accommodate maneuvering shall be screened from the street by building volume.
    4. Podium parking. Podium parking shall be located in the rear 40 percent of the site. Ventilation openings and grilles shall be concealed and shall not be visible from the main garden, from the street, or from the entrances to the units in compliance with Section 17.46.190 (Garage Door and Grille Standards for Projects Utilizing Multi-Family Development Standards), below.
    5. Partial subterranean parking.

      1. Partially subterranean parking shall be located within the site boundary and shall provide a minimum setback of five feet in the side and rear property lines, and may extend up to the front property line.
      2. At the front, side, and rear yard setbacks, the parking structure may extend an additional five feet, provided it is configured so that the additional portions meet the same criteria as for fully subterranean parking.
      3. Planting and tree wells shall be provided as specified by the planting and paving standards in Chapter 17.44 (Landscaping).
      4. Ventilation openings and grilles shall be concealed and shall not be visible from the street.
    6. Subterranean parking.

      1. Fully subterranean parking shall be located within the site boundary and may extend to all property lines.
      2. A fully subterranean structure not covered by building volume shall be covered by soil with a minimum depth of two feet, recreating the natural grade before construction.
      3. Planting and tree wells shall be provided as specified by the planting and paving standards in Chapter 17.44 (Landscaping).
      4. Ventilation openings and grilles shall be concealed and shall not be visible from the street.
  12. Shopping cart storage. Parking facilities for commercial uses shall contain shopping cart storage areas for appropriate uses (e.g., supermarkets, drugstores, etc.). The number, dimensions, and locations of storage areas shall be determined by the Zoning Administrator.
  13. Valet parking. A Minor Conditional Use Permit, granted in compliance with Section 17.61.050, shall be required to allow valet parking.

17.46.030 - Zoning Credit Parking Program

  1. Areas of applicability. This Section shall apply to areas of the City for which the Council has established a zoning credit parking program
  2. Written contract required. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Chapter or Chapter 17.30 (Central District Specific Plan), zoning credit parking spaces ("zoning credit") must be provided by means of contracts with the City of the Parking Authority in compliance with this Section.  A contract meeting the following requirements shall be deemed to be in compliance with the parking requirements of Table 4-6 (Off-Street Parking Space Requirements).

1.      Zoning credits.  The designated number of parking spaces available for zoning credit purposes shall also be available for public parking.  The contract may provide that the owner of the parking facility in which the zoning credits are located is free to retain any revenue from parking fees or to utilize the spaces for any purpose.

2.      Nontransferable provisions.  The entitlement to use the zoning credits is conferred on a specified property in order to satisfy the parking requirements for a specified use.  The zoning credits shall not satisfy the parking requirements for any other land use and shall not be transferred to any other property.

3.      Reversion of spaces.  Any and all rights to use the zoning credits which are not used within three years of the execution date of the contract shall not, unless the period is extended by the City or Parking Authority, as appropriate, be conferred on the specified property and shall automatically revert to the City or Parking Authority, as appropriate.

 4.     Allowable refunds.  The contract may allow for refunds of zoning credit fees upon the occurrence of conditions to be specified in the contract.

  • C.  Future or planned parking facilities.

    1.      Future parking facilities.  In the case of parking spaces that are to be developed, owned, or operated by the City or Parking Authority, the granting of zoning credits may be accomplished by indicating that the contract applies to a certain number of spaces which the City or Parking Authority intends to locate in a parking facility to be built in the future and for which financing has been obtained.

    2.      Spaces in planned public parking facilities.  Zoning credits for parking may be granted in planned public parking facilities to be owned or operated by the City or Parking Authority for which financing has not been obtained, provided the applicant demonstrates an alternative means for meeting the parking requirements identified in this Chapter if financing is not obtained.

       D.    Maximum number of zoning credit spaces.

    1.      Number of zoning credit spaces.  In no case shall the total number of zoning credits designated in a parking facility exceed the actual number of spaces in the parking facility.

    2.      CD-1 Old Pasadena Historic Core Precinct.  In the CD-1 Old Pasadena Historic Core Precinct, a parking facility used for the zoning credit parking program and which has a capacity of 100 spaces or more, may oversubscribe zoning credits by not more than 50 percent of the total provided in the parking facility.  The Zoning Administrator and the Traffic Engineer may institute measures to accommodate parking within the parking facility during any part of the day or night as necessary to accommodate the parking demand.  The measures may include tandem and valet parking.

    3.     On-street parking spaces. On-street parking spaces may be granted as zoning credits in the area identified as the S. Lake Ave. Parking Credit District Boundary Map.  The number of on-street parking spaces used as zoning credits shall be established by resolution.

       E.   Distance requirement.  A contract meeting the above requirements shall be deemed to be in compliance with the distance requirements identified in Table 4-4 (Maximum Distances for Off-Site Parking). 

    17.46.040 - Number of Off‑Street Parking Spaces Required

    1. Table 4-6. Off‑street parking spaces shall be provided in compliance with Table 4-6 (Off‑Street Parking Space Requirements), below.
    2. Minimum standards. The parking requirements of Table 4-6 are expressed as minimum standards. The required numbers shall be met and not exceeded, unless otherwise allowed in full compliance with this Chapter. Projects located within 1/4 mile of a light-rail station or within the Central District Transit-Oriented Area (Figure 3-5) shall comply with the parking requirements and maximums of Section 17.50.340 (Transit-Oriented Development)
    3. Residential uses - no limit on additional parking. For residential uses, there is no limit on the maximum additional parking provided. Projects located within 1/4 mile of a light-rail station or within the Central District Transit-Oriented Area (Figure 3-5) shall comply with the provisions of Section 17.50.340 (Transit-Oriented Development).
    4. Nonresidential uses — additional parking allowed. Additional parking spaces above the minimum requirement are allowed for nonresidential uses or the nonresidential portions of mixed-use projects only in the following manner:

      1. The project is not located within 1/4 of a light-rail station or within the Central District Transit-Oriented Area (Figure 3-5).
      2. Additional spaces up to a maximum of 50 percent above the required minimum/maximum are allowed as a matter of right, without any discretionary review by the City.
      3. Additional spaces above 50 percent of the required minimum/maximum are allowed only upon the approval of a Variance in compliance with Section 17.61.080.
    5. Gross floor area. References to spaces per square foot are to be computed on the basis of gross floor area unless otherwise specified, and shall include allocations of shared restroom, circulation area, and storage areas.
    6. Uses not listed.

      1. Land uses not specifically listed in Table 4-6 (Off‑Street Parking Space Requirements), below, shall provide parking as required by the Zoning Administrator.
      2. The Zoning Administrator shall use the requirements of Table 4-6 as a guide in determining the minimum number of off-street parking spaces to be provided.
    7. Rounding in calculations. If a fractional number is obtained in calculations performed in compliance with this Section, one parking space shall be required for a fractional unit of 0.50 or above, and no space shall be required for a fractional unit of less than 0.50.  (See Interpretation)

      Table 4-6 — Off-Street Parking Space Requirements

      Use Classification

      Minimum Parking

      Residential Uses

      Boarding Houses

      1 covered space for each 3 habitable rooms provided in the facility.

      Caretaker Quarters

      1 space.

      Dormitories

      1 covered space for each 3 habitable rooms provided in the facility.

      Fraternity Sorority Housing

      1 covered space for each 3 habitable rooms provided in the facility.

      Mixed-Use Developments

      Combination of individual residential and commercial parking requirements.

      Multi-Family Residential
      CD (Central District)

      Parking shall be provided in compliance with Section 17.50.340 (Transit-Oriented Development) for those areas within the Central District Transit-Oriented Area (Figure 3-5). Outside the transit district, parking shall be 1 space for units less than 650 sq. ft. and 1.5 spaces for units 650 sq. ft. or greater. Developments with 10 units or more shall also provide 1 guest parking space for each 10 units. The guest spaces shall be clearly marked for "Guest Parking Only."

      2 covered spaces per unit 650 sq. ft. or larger; 1 covered space per unit less than 650 sq. ft. of net floor area. Developments with 10 units or more shall also provide 1 guest parking space for each 10 units. The guest spaces shall be clearly marked for "Guest Parking Only."

      Senior Citizen Housing

      Subject to approval of a Conditional Use Permit and making findings required in Section 17.46.070 (Reduced Parking in Senior Citizens' Housing Developments); no less than .50 spaces per unit. For density bonus projects, further reductions shall be through the concessions and other incentives process. Projects with 10 units or more shall also provide 1 guest parking space for each 10 units. The guest spaces shall be clearly marked for "Guest Parking Only."

      Residential Care Facilities, General

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Residential Care Facilities, Limited

      2 covered parking spaces per unit within a garage or carport.

      Single‑Room OccupancyBAffordable

      1 space per 4 units; plus 2 spaces for the resident manager.

      Single‑Room Occupancy Market Rate (or not guaranteed affordable)

      1 space per unit; plus 2 spaces for the resident manager.

      Single-Family Dwelling Units

      2 covered spaces per unit within a garage or carport.

      Transition Housing

      2 covered spaces per unit within a garage or carport.

      Use Classification Minimum Parking
      Recreation, Education & Public Assembly Uses

      Adult Businesses

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Clubs, Lodges, Private Meeting Halls

      10 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. used for assembly purposes.

      Colleges - Nontraditional Campus Setting

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Colleges - Traditional Campus Setting

      1 per 3 nonresident students; plus 1 per 3 employees and members of the faculty.

      In CD-3 - Ford Place/Fuller Seminary Precinct

      1 space for every 3 daytime nonresident students living outside of CD-3 - Ford Place/Fuller Seminary Precinct; 1 per campus unit; 1 per two dormitory residents; 1 per 2 employees and members of the faculty.

      Commercial Entertainment
      Nightclubs or Comedy Clubs

      1 space per 3 fixed seats, or 28 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of seating area if there are no fixed seats; plus 28 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of dance floor area.

      Live Performance Facilities

      1 space per 5 fixed seats, or 28 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of seating area if there are no fixed seats.

      Cinemas B Single-Screen

      1 space per 3 fixed seats.

      Cinemas B Multi-Screen

      1 space per 5 fixed seats.

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Commercial Recreation - Indoor
      Bowling Alleys

      4 spaces per alley; plus required spaces for accessory uses.

      Skating Rinks

      1 space per 5 fixed seats, or 28 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of seating area if there are no fixed seats; plus 4 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. floor area not used for seating.

      Other Indoor Commercial Recreation Uses

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Commercial Recreation - Outdoor

      1 space per 500 sq. ft. of pool area.

      Tennis and Racquetball Clubs

      4 spaces per court.

      Other Outdoor Commercial Recreation Uses

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Conference Centers

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Cultural Institutions

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Electronic Game Centers

      6 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Internet Access Studios

      6 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Park and Recreation facilities

      2.5 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Religious Facilities
      In a Residential or PS Zoning District

      1 space per 4 fixed seats, or 20 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of seating area if there are no fixed seats.

      In a Commercial Zoning District

      1 space per 8 fixed seats, or 14 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of seating area if there are no fixed seats.

      Schools

      Grammar School

      1.5 spaces per classroom, plus 1 space for every 2 employees and members of the faculty.

      High School

      1 space for every 5 students; plus 1 space for every 2 employees and members of the faculty.

      3.5 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.; plus 2 drop-off spaces.

      Use Classification

      Minimum Parking

      Office, Professional, & Business Support Uses

      Banks and Financial Services

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Business Support Services

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Offices - Accessory to Primary Use

      Parking requirement shall be the same as the primary use.

      Offices - Administrative business professional

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Offices - Governmental

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Offices - Medical

      4 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Research and Development - Offices

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Work/Live Units

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Retail Sales

      Animal Sales and Services

      2.5 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Bars or Taverns

      10 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Building Materials and Supplies Sales

      1 space per 1,000 sq. ft. of site area.

      Commercial Nurseries

      2.5 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Convenience Stores

      4 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Firearms Sales

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Food Sales

      4 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Internet Vehicle Sales

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Liquor Store

      4 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Pawnshops

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Restaurants

      10 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of gross floor area, including any outdoor dining area not located in the public right-of-way (e.g., sidewalk).

      Restaurants, Fast Food
      With up to and including 1,500 sq. ft. of gross floor area

      4 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of gross floor area, including any outdoor dining area not located in the public right-of-way (e.g., sidewalk).

      With 1,501 to 1,999 sq. ft. of gross floor area

      4 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of gross floor area plus 3 spaces for each 100 sq. ft. of gross floor area in excess of 1,500 sq. ft., up to a maximum of 20 spaces, including any outdoor dining area not located in the public right-of-way (e.g., sidewalk).

      With 2,000 sq. ft. or more of gross floor area

      10 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of gross floor area, including any outdoor dining area not located in the public right-of-way (e.g., sidewalk).

      Restaurants, With Drive-Throughs

      10 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. gross floor area; plus queue lanes for at least 5 cars for drive‑up service. However, all restaurants proposing drive-through facilities shall submit a study to determine if longer queuing lanes shall be required by the Zoning Administrator.

      Retail Sales

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Significant Tobacco Retailers

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Swap Meets
      Indoor

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Outdoor

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of sales area.

      Vehicle Services - Automobile Rental

      2.5 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Vehicle Services - Sales and Leasing

      1 space per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Vehicle Services - Sales and Leasing - Limited

      1 space per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Vehicle Services - Service Stations

      1 space per 1,000 sq. ft. of lot area; less the footprint of any convenience store area; plus 3.3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of convenience store area; plus 1 space per tow truck which operates from the station; plus 5 queue lane spaces for any self‑service auto wash. Fueling positions may count as parking spaces; provided, that not more than 8 fueling positions shall count as parking spaces.

      1 space per 2,000 sq. ft. lot area; less the footprint of any convenience store; plus 3.3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of convenience store area; plus 1 space per tow truck which operates from the station; plus 5 queue lane spaces for any self‑service auto wash. Fueling positions may count as parking spaces; provided, there shall not be less than 3 nonfueling position parking spaces.

      Use Classification

      Minimum Parking

      Services

      Adult Day-Care, General

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Animal Sales and Services

      2.5 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Animal Shelters As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Catering Services

      2.5 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Charitable Institutions

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Child Day-Care Center

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Detention Facilities

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Emergency Shelters

      1 space for every 4 beds.

      Emergency Shelters, Limited 1 space for every 4 beds.

      Hospitality Home

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Laboratories

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Life/Care Facilities

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Lodging - Bed and Breakfast Inns

      1 space per guest room; plus 2 spaces.

      Lodging - Hotels and Motels

      1 space per guest room; plus 10 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of banquet, assembly, meeting or restaurant seating area or 1 space per 8 fixed seats. Accessory retail uses greater than 5,000 sq. ft. gross: 2.5 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Maintenance and Repair Service

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Massage establishments 3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Medical Services - Extended Care

      1 space per 5 patient beds the facility is licensed to accommodate.

      Medical Services - Hospitals

      3 spaces per bed the facility is licensed to accommodate.

      Mortuaries, Funeral Homes

      1 space per 5 fixed seats in main assembly area, or 28 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft. of seating area if there are no fixed seats.

      Personal Improvement Services

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Physical Fitness Clubs

      5 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Personal Services

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Personal Services, Restricted

      3 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Printing and Publishing

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Printing and Publishing, Limited

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Public Maintenance & Service Facilities

      1 space per 500 sq. ft.

      Public Safety Facilities

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Vehicle Services - Vehicle equipment repair

      4 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.; plus queue lanes to service bays and workstations. The service bays and workstations shall not be counted toward meeting the off-street parking requirements.

      Vehicle Services - Washing and Detailing

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.; plus queue spaces for a minimum of 5 cars.

      Vehicle Services - Washing and Detailing, Small-Scale

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.; shared parking is allowed without a minor conditional use permit.

      Use Classification

      Minimum Parking

      Industry, Manufacturing & Processing Uses

      Commercial Growing Area

      1 space per 2 acres.

      Industry, Restricted

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Industry, Restricted, small-scale

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Industry, Standard

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Recycling Centers - Small Collection Facilities

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.; plus 1 space per bin.

      Recycling Centers - Large Facilities

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.; plus 1 space per bin.

      Research, and Development - Non-Offices

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Wholesaling, Distribution, & Storage

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Wholesaling, Distribution & Storage, small-scale

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Transportation, Communications & Utility Uses

      Alternative Fuel/Recharging Facilities

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Communications Facility

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Heliports

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Transportation Dispatch Facility

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.; plus 1 space per commercial vehicle.

      Transportation Terminals

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Trucking Terminals

      1 space per 1,000 sq. ft.

      Utility, Major

      As specified by Conditional Use Permit.

      Vehicle Storage

      2 spaces per 1,000 sq. ft.

    17.46.050 - Shared Parking

    1. Requirements for sharing spaces. For any site where the hours of operation allow the shared use of parking spaces to occur without conflict, the number of parking spaces required may be reduced in compliance with this Section.

      1. Minor Conditional Use Permit required. A Minor Conditional Use Permit, in compliance with Section 17.61.050 shall be required for the sharing of parking and/or loading spaces. The Minor Conditional Use Permit shall apply to each and every property subject to the shared parking and/or loading arrangement.
      2. Allowable walking distances for shared parking. The Zoning Administrator shall ensure that the shared parking arrangement provides that all of the required number of parking spaces are within the maximum walking distances identified in Section 17.46.020, Table 4-4 (Maximum Distances for Off‑Site Parking) of the use served, measured from the nearest corner of the parking facility to the entrance of the use served via the shortest pedestrian route.
      3. Contract required.

        1. The Minor Conditional Use Permit shall contain a condition requiring that the applicant submit a signed contract between the applicant and the other property owner(s) providing the off-street parking spaces subject to the shared parking arrangement.
        2. The contract shall be subject to the approval of the Zoning Administrator.
        3. The contract shall also be subject to review by the City Attorney, as to form and content.
      4. Parking study. The Zoning Administrator may require the applicant to submit a parking study, prepared by a person/firm experienced in preparing parking plans, to assist the Zoning Administrator in determining the appropriate shared parking reduction.
      5. Urban Land Institute methodology. The Zoning Administrator may utilize the Urban Land Institute's (ULI) Shared Parking methodology as a guide in reviewing the shared parking proposal submitted by the applicant, and in approving the required Minor Conditional Use Permit.
      6. Location of shared parking spaces. Shared parking spaces shall only be located in a zoning district in which the uses that are the subject of the Minor Conditional Use Permit application are an allowed use.
      7. Shared loading spaces. Loading spaces may also be shared in compliance with this Section. However, the loading spaces shall only be shared if located on an adjoining lot.
    2. Findings. In addition to the Minor Conditional Use Permit findings identified in Section 17.61.050, the following findings shall be made:

      1. The spaces to be provided would be available as long as the uses requiring the spaces lawfully exist; and
      2. The quality and efficiency of the parking or loading utilization would equal or exceed the level that is otherwise required.

    17.46.060 - Participation in Public Parking Assessment District

    Participation in a Public Parking Assessment District may be used to comply with the provisions of this Chapter to the extent of a use's allotted share of the parking spaces in the district.

    17.46.070 - Reduced Parking in Senior Citizens' Housing Developments

    1. Allowed reduction. A Minor Conditional Use Permit, in compliance with Section 17.61.050, may be approved to allow the reduction in the number of spaces to not less than 0.50 space per dwelling unit, provided that additional findings are made for each of the following:

      1. The extent of the parking problem in the neighborhood.
      2. The probability that the prospective residents will have an average 0.50 vehicles per dwelling unit.
      3. Prospective residents will be over 55 years of age.
      4. Future, unexpected parking problems resulting from the proposed development can be corrected.
      5. Alternate transportation is available for the residents of the development or public transportation is close by.
    2. Covenant required.

      1. Covenant to be recorded. The granting of a Minor Conditional Use Permit authorized by this Section shall be conditioned upon the owner of the property recording a covenant, approved as to form by the City Attorney.
      2. Covenant to run with the land. The covenant shall run with the land for the benefit of the City.
      3. Ensure that no change in use occurs. The covenant shall ensure that no change in the use of the property, as described in the Minor Conditional Use Permit application, shall occur unless parking is provided which will meet the requirements of all applicable laws in effect at the time the use is changed.

    17.46.080 - Tandem Parking

    1. Where allowed. Tandem parking may be allowed for:

      1. Multi-family projects and residential component of mixed-use projects. Multi-family projects (except for projects constructed under the RM-12 zoning district standards) and the residential component of mixed-use projects;
      2. Day-care centers and homes. Day-care centers and large family day-care homes to satisfy off‑site parking requirements;
      3. Other nonresidential uses.

        1. Tandem parking. Up to 75 percent of the total off-street parking spaces provided may incorporate tandem parking, but only upon the approval of a Minor Conditional Use Permit in compliance with Section 17.61.050. The Minor Conditional Use Permit shall contain a condition requiring that a full-time parking attendant be on duty at all times the parking facility is available for use.
        2. Triple stack parking. Up to 50 percent of the total off-street parking spaces provided may incorporate "triple stack" parking, but only upon the approval of a Minor Conditional Use Permit in compliance with Section 17.61.050, and only for projects with more than 100 parking spaces. The Minor Conditional Use Permit shall contain a condition requiring that a full-time parking attendant be on duty at all times the parking facility is available for use.
    2. Additional conditions for multi-family and mixed-use projects. For multi-family projects and the residential component of mixed-use projects, the following conditions shall be met for tandem spaces:

      1. Assigned to same unit. Both tandem spaces shall be assigned to the same dwelling unit.
      2. Up to 30 percent. Up to 30 percent of the total off-street parking spaces provided may incorporate tandem parking.
      3. Minimum tandem space dimensions. Two parking spaces in tandem shall have a combined minimum dimension of nine feet in width by 34 feet in length. (See Interpretation)

    17.46.090 - Compact Parking Spaces Prohibited

    Compact parking spaces shall not be allowed anywhere in the City. (See Interpretation)

    17.46.100 - Parking Spaces for the Handicapped

    Parking areas shall include parking spaces accessible to the disabled in the following manner:

    1. Number of spaces, design standards. Parking spaces for the disabled shall be provided in compliance with the requirements of State law (California Administrative Code [Title 24, Part 2, Chapters 2B71] and California Vehicle Code [Section 22507.8]).
    2. Reservation of spaces required. Disabled access spaces required by this Section shall be reserved by the property owner/tenant for use by the disabled throughout the life of the approved land use.
    3. Fulfilling of requirements. Disabled accessible parking spaces required by this Section shall count toward fulfilling off-street parking requirements.
    4. Modifications. For a project with existing parking, the Zoning Administrator may modify the number of parking spaces in an existing parking lot by reducing the number of parking spaces to accommodate handicapped parking. (See Interpretation)

    17.46.110 - Parking Space Dimensions

    Required parking spaces shall comply with the minimum dimensions identified in Table 4-7 (Off-Street Parking Space Dimensions) below.

    Table 4-7 — Off-Street Parking Space Dimensions

    Type of Space Minimum Universal Stall Dimension (Feet)

    All nonparallel spaces.

    8.5 X 18

    Parallel spaces

    8 X 24

    17.46.120 - Application of Dimensional Requirements

    1. Relation to aisles.

      1. If contiguous to an obstruction. An additional width of one foot shall be provided for each parking space the length of which is contiguous to a fence, structure, wall, or other obstruction. Except if columns are set back away from the aisles, the one-foot additional width required by this Subsection may be lessened three inches for each foot the columns are set back from the aisles.
      2. If located at end of aisle. At the end of an aisle providing access to a parking space perpendicular to the aisle, the aisle shall extend two feet beyond the side of the last parking space in the aisle.
    2. Minimum vertical clearances required.

      1. All parking spaces. Vertical clearance for all parking spaces, including entrances, shall be a minimum of seven feet in height.
      2. Residential spaces. Vertical clearance for the front four feet of a parking space serving a residential use may be reduced to not less than four feet, six inches feet in height.
      3. Handicapped spaces. Vertical clearance for access to and including handicapped spaces, shall be a minimum of eight feet, two inches in height.
    3. Striping. Parking spaces shall be double‑striped. See Figure 4-12.

      Figure 4-12 - Parking space striping

      Figure 4-12

    17.46.130 - Aisle Dimensions

    1. Aisle width in unobstructed parking areas. Aisle width in an unobstructed parking area shall comply with the requirements in Table 4-8 (Aisle Dimensions).

      Table 4-8 — Aisle Dimensions

      Minimum Aisle Width for Specified Parking Angle (feet)

      Increase in Parking Size Width

      90°

      75°

      60°

      45°

      30° or less

      .00

      24

      22

      18

      13

      12

      .25

      23

      21

           

      .50

      22

      20

           

      .75

      21

      19

           

      1.00

      20

             
    2. Aisle width adjoining garage doors. Aisle width adjoining a garage door shall comply with the requirements in Table 4-9 (Minimum Garage Door Widths). For the purposes of this Section, garage-door width shall be defined as the clear opening between structural elements.  (See Interpretation)

      Table 4-9 — Minimum Garage Door Width

      Minimum Garage Door Width (Feet)

      Minimum Aisle Width
      (Feet)

      2 Spaces

      1 Space

      20

      12

      20

      19

      10

      22

      18

      9

      24

      16

      8

      28 or more

    3. Aisle widths and planter areas. Aisle widths do not include required planter areas. All spaces shall have wheel stops three feet from a fence, wall, or required landscaped area. Raised curbs of planter areas not less than six feet deep may be used as wheel stops, provided the cars can overhang the planter area without disturbing the plant materials. Any aisle less than 18 feet wide shall be restricted to one‑way traffic.

    17.46.140 - Parking Access from Street

    1. No backing across property lines. Access to parking spaces, other than four or fewer spaces serving a residential use, shall not require backing across a property line abutting a street.
    2. Alley may be used as maneuvering space. An alley may be used as maneuvering space for access to off‑street parking.
    3. Accessibility of spaces. All spaces in a parking facility shall be accessible without reentering a public right‑of‑way.
    4. Driveway approaches required. Driveway approaches for all developments shall be required as determined by the Department of Public Works.
    5. Subject to the approval of the Directors of Public Works and Transportation. All driveway access to a public street or alley is subject to the approval of the Director of Public Works and the Director of Transportation. (See Interpretation)

    17.46.150 - Driveway Design, Widths, and Clearances

    The width of each driveway shall comply with the minimum requirements of this Section and also provide a minimum of one foot of additional clearance on each side of the driveway to a vertical obstruction exceeding one-half foot in height.

    1. Residential uses.

      1. Minimum driveway width. The minimum width of a driveway serving a residential use, other than in a project utilizing the multi-family development standards of Section 17.22.060 (RM District General Development Standards), shall comply with Table 4-10 (Minimum Driveway Width - Residential Uses).

        Table 4-10 — Minimum Driveway Width - Residential Uses

        Number of Spaces Served Minimum Driveway Width (feet)

        6 or fewer parking spaces

        8

        7 to 25 parking spaces 10
        26 or more parking spaces 10 (one-way drive)
        18 (two-way drive)
      2. Maximum driveway width. The maximum width for a driveway serving a residential use in the RS and RM-12 zoning districts shall be as identified in Table 4-11 (Maximum Driveway Width - Residential Uses), below.  (See Interpretation)

        Table 4-11 — Maximum Driveway Width - Residential Uses

        Size and Location of Garage

        Maximum Driveway Width (feet)

        One-car garage located at or near the front setback

        10

        Two-car garage located at or near the front setback

        20

        Garages located to the rear of a lot

        10

      3. Number of driveways. The maximum number of driveways serving a single-family use shall be one. This maximum number may be increased to two for approved circular driveways.
    2. Nonresidential uses. A driveway serving a nonresidential use (including a mixed use project) shall comply with the following requirements.

      Table 4-12 — Minimum Driveway Width - Nonresidential Uses

      Number of Spaces Served

      Minimum Driveway Width (feet)

      14 or fewer parking spaces

      12

      15 or more parking spaces

      12 (one-way drive)

      20 (two-way drive)

    3. Multi-family uses. Serving a multi-family use in projects utilizing multi-family development standards of Section 17.22.060 (RM District General Development Standards).

      1. Driveways shall have the following widths at a minimum plus at least one-half foot additional clearance on any side where they pass a vertical obstruction exceeding curb height.

        Table 4-13 — Minimum Driveway Width - Multi-Family Projects

        Number of Spaces Served

        Minimum Driveway Width (feet)

        25 or fewer spaces

        One driveway - 10 feet wide

        26 or more parking spaces

        Two one-way driveways - 10 feet wide each

        One two-way driveway - 12 feet wide

        (See Section 17.46.180 (Driveway Location and Frequency for Projects Utilizing Multi-Family Development Standards)

      2. Driveway approaches shall be at least 12 feet wide at the curb and shall taper to driveway width at the front property line.
    4. Circular driveways. Circular driveways shall be approved by the Zoning Administrator and shall be subject to the following standards:

      1. Allowed only in the RS and RM-12 districts.
      2. Only lots with a street frontage of 90 feet or more are eligible for circular driveways.
      3. On lots with more than one street frontage, the circular driveway may only be located on the street frontage which is 90 feet or greater.
      4. The circular driveway shall not have a width greater than 15 feet.
      5. The minimum distance between driveways on the same lot shall be 20 feet.
      6. The Department of Public Works Department and the Department of Transportation shall review and approve the proposed driveway approaches, the distance between the driveway approaches, and the potential traffic impacts that could result from the installation of the circular driveway.
      7. The circular driveway shall be set back a minimum of 25 feet measured perpendicular from the property line to the farthest distance of the inside edge of the circular driveway.

    17.46.160 - Driveway Configuration for Multi-Family Projects

    For projects utilizing the multi-family development standards of Section 17.22.060 (RM District General Development Standards), the following driveway configuration standards shall apply:

    1. Backing out not allowed. Driveway configurations which require backing in from or out onto the street are not allowed. All vehicles shall be able to turn around within the site boundaries.
    2. Driveway widths. On sites with 80 feet or more of street frontage, the width of a single driveway shall remain constant for no more than 100 feet from the front property line. The driveway then shall either widen to accommodate two‑way traffic, or a turnout of at least 30 feet long and ten feet wide shall be provided.
    3. Driveway screening. A driveway adjacent to a main garden shall be screened subject to the approval of the Zoning Administrator.
    4. Use of driveway on adjacent lot. A new project may use the driveway on an adjacent lot, provided the following requirements are met:

      1. Directly adjacent. The driveway is directly adjacent to a shared property line;
      2. An easement is obtained. An easement for the use of the driveway is obtained; and
      3. Adequate in width. The driveway width is adequate for the additional number of vehicles to be served.

    17.46.170 - Driveway Visibility

    Each driveway for a nonresidential use shall comply with the following requirements.

    1. View corridor. A view corridor shall adjoin both sides of a driveway crossing a street property line. The view corridor shall be a minimum depth of five feet at the edge of the driveway and a width measured on both sides of the driveway of 50 feet, or the distance to the intercepting property line, whichever is less.
    2. Visibility. The view corridor shall not be blocked between a height of 2.5 feet and seven feet.
    3. Landscaping. At least 50 percent of the view corridor shall be landscaped. The landscaping shall meet the visibility requirement identified in Subsection B., above.
    4. Modifications by Directors of Public Works and Transportation. The Director of Public Works and the Director of Transportation may modify the requirements of this Section.

    17.46.180 - Driveway Location and Frequency for Multi-Family Projects

    For projects utilizing the multi-family development standards of Section 17.22.060 (RM District General Development Standards), the following driveway location standards shall apply:

    1. Separation of driveways. In general, driveways shall be located as far apart as possible.
    2. Less than 80 feet of street frontage. On sites with less than 80 feet of street frontage, a single driveway shall be located on either side of the site. The maximum distance between the outside edge of the driveway and the property line shall be five feet.
    3. More than 80 and less than 140 feet of street frontage. On sites with more than 80 feet, but less than 140 feet, of street frontage:

      1. Single driveway allowed.

        1. Where the number of parking spaces allows a single driveway, it shall be located on either side of the site.
        2. The maximum distance between the outside edge of the driveway and the closest side property line shall be five feet.
      2. Hollywood driveway. A single drive may be centrally located; provided that it is a "Hollywood" driveway and the main garden requirements are accommodated. The Hollywood drive may bisect the main garden, but under no circumstances shall the area occupied by the Hollywood drive be included in the garden space calculations.
      3. Two driveways required. Where the number of parking spaces requires two driveways, they shall be located so that one is placed on each side of the site. The maximum distance from the outside edge of the driveway and the nearest side property line shall be five feet. On corner lots and in projects which require more than 26 parking spaces and that cannot accommodate more than one driveway, one 12‑foot wide driveway at one side of the site may replace the requirement for the two driveways.
    4. 140 feet or more of street frontage. On sites with 140 feet or more of street frontage:

      1. Single driveway allowed. Where the number of parking spaces allows a single driveway, it shall meet the requirements for driveways identified in Subsections 17.46.190.A (Opaque garage doors required) and B. (Partially open garage doors allowed), below.
      2. Two driveways required. Where the number of parking spaces requires two driveways, they shall be located so that their inside edges are at least 120 feet apart.
    5. Ramp leading to subterranean parking. When a driveway is a ramp leading to partially or fully subterranean parking, the maximum distance between the outside edge of the driveway and the side property line shall be five feet.

    17.46.190 - Garage Door and Grille Standards for Multi-Family Projects

    For projects utilizing the multi-family development standards of Section 17.22.060 (RM District General Development Standards), the following garage door and grille standards shall apply.

    1. Opaque garage doors required. Garage doors shall be opaque when permitted to be visible from the street, adjacent property, or main garden.
    2. Partially open garage doors allowed. Garage doors may be partially open when completely concealed from the street and located in a subterranean structure.
    3. Garage door openings. Garage door openings shall be no more than 20 feet in width.
    4. Ventilation grills.

      1. Over four square feet. Grilles over four square feet in area shall not be visible from the street or main garden.
      2. Four square feet or less. Grilles four square feet or less which are at least five feet above finished grade may be visible from the street or main garden.
      3. Contribute to quality and character. All grilles shall contribute to the architectural quality and character of the structure.

    17.46.200 - Driveway Encroachments for Multi-Family Projects

    For projects utilizing the multi-family development standards of Section 17.22.060 (RM District [City of Gardens] General Development Standards), the following driveway encroachment standards shall apply. The following building elements may project into the driveway area as noted, provided they do not conflict with the setback requirements of Section 17.22.060, and further provided there is at least 10 feet of clearance beneath them.

    1. Up to and including one-half the driveway width. Building elements projecting up to one‑half the driveway width (e.g., bay windows or balconies.)
    2. More than one-half driveway width. Building elements projecting more than one‑half the driveway width, with the following conditions:

      1. Opaque elements. When the elements are opaque (e.g., habitable rooms) they are limited to 30 feet in length.
      2. Partially open elements. When the elements are partially open (e.g., trellises), they may extend for the entire length of the driveway, except where they extend into the front yard setback.

    17.46.210 - Parking Area Screening — Walls and Fences

    1. Parking areas serving a residential use. A carport for five or more vehicles serving a residential use shall be screened from an adjoining lot with a residential use by a solid wall or fence six feet in height, except that the height of a wall or fence adjoining a required front setback in a residential zoning district shall not exceed four feet.
    2. Parking areas serving a nonresidential use. A parking area for five or more vehicles serving a nonresidential use shall be screened from an adjoining residential zoning district or a ground floor residential use by a solid concrete or masonry wall six feet in height, except that the height of a wall adjoining a required front setback in a residential zoning district shall not exceed four feet.

    17.46.220 - Outdoor Parking Area Lighting

    1. Maximum of 18 feet in height. Outdoor parking area lighting shall not exceed 18 feet in height, unless specifically approved by the Design Commission or other applicable review authority, and except when located within City parks.
    2. Confinement of emitted light. In general, the lighting fixtures used shall be designed to confine emitted light to the parking area, and the light source shall not be visible from outside of the area.
    3. Exception by Design Commission. Where important architectural considerations indicate the desirability of fixtures which expose the light source to view from beyond the parking area, the fixtures and lighting layout shall be specifically approved by the Design Commission or other applicable review authority.
    4. Maximum illumination allowed.

      1. Lots within residential zoning districts. Maximum average illumination at ground level shall not exceed one footcandle when the parking lot is located within a residential zoning district.
      2. Lots within nonresidential zoning districts. Maximum average illumination at ground level shall not exceed three footcandles when the parking lot is located within a nonresidential zoning district.
      3. Lots within City parks. Parking lots located within City parks shall be exempt from this requirement.
    5. Parking structure lighting. No light source within a parking structure in a residential or R‑PK zoning district shall be visible from a public right‑of‑way adjoining a residential zoning district.

    17.46.230 - Parking Lot Landscaping

    1. Perimeter landscaped area required.

      1. Five-foot wide perimeter. All parking lots shall have a minimum five-foot wide perimeter landscaped area. For lots with more than 150 feet of street frontage, the minimum landscaped area shall be 10 feet in width.
      2. Modification by Zoning Administrator. The Zoning Administrator may modify the five-foot minimum perimeter landscape requirement to accommodate parking lots with less than 60 feet in width. This modification could allow the perimeter to be less than five feet in specified areas, while adding an equivalent amount of landscaping elsewhere in the subject parking lot.
    2. Minimum amount of landscaped area required.

      1. The landscaped areas identified in Table 4-14 (Minimum Landscape Area Required), below, shall be distributed throughout the parking lot in compliance with the applicable provisions of this Section.

        Table 4-14 — Minimum Landscape Area Required

        Capacity of Parking Lot

        Minimum Percentage of Parking Lot that is Required to be Landscaped

        100 spaces or less

        5 percent

        Over 100 spaces

        10 percent

      2. The minimum amount of landscaped area required in Subsection B.1, above, shall be over and above the perimeter landscaping required by Subsection A. (Perimeter landscaped area required) above.
      3. An existing nonresidential development proposing an increase in gross floor area of at least 25 percent shall comply with the minimum landscaped area requirements for the entire (both existing and required/proposed) parking lot area in compliance with Subsection B.1, above. This requirement may be modified by the Zoning Administrator.
    3. Planting of trees within parking lots required. At least one tree for every four vehicle parking spaces required/provided shall be planted and evenly distributed throughout the parking lot. Clustering of trees may be required by the Zoning Administrator or Design Review Authority in order to create a desired landscape character.
    4. Shading required. Parking lots shall include trees intended to provide shade. The selected trees shall be from an approved list provided by the Department. The trees shall be provided so that the shade canopies will be achieved within a minimum of 10 years after planting. All trees within the parking area shall be a minimum of 15-gallon size at planting. However, larger trees (e.g., 24-, 36-, and 48-inch box) may be required by the Zoning Administrator.
    5. Landscape materials. Landscaping materials shall be provided throughout the parking lot area using an appropriate combination of trees, shrubs, and ground cover. Drought-tolerant landscape materials shall be emphasized in compliance with Chapter 17.44 (Landscaping).
    6. Location of landscaping. Parking lot landscaping shall be located so that pedestrians are not required to cross landscaped areas to reach building entrances from parked vehicles. This should be achieved through proper orientation of the landscaped fingers and islands.
    7. Planters required.

      1. Trees shall be in planters located throughout the parking area.
      2. In order to be considered within the parking area, trees shall be located in planters that are bounded on at least three sides by parking area paving.
      3. Planters shall have a minimum interior dimension of five feet and be of sufficient size to accommodate tree growth.
      4. All ends of parking lanes shall have landscaped islands. This requirement may be modified by the Zoning Administrator.
    8. Curbing, irrigation. Areas containing plant materials shall be bordered by a concrete curb at least six inches high and six inches wide and provided with an automatic irrigation system installed and maintained in compliance with Chapter 17.44 (Landscaping). Alternative barrier designs may be approved by the Zoning Administrator.
    9. Bumper overhang areas. To increase the parking lot landscaped area, a maximum of three feet of the parking stall depth may be landscaped with low-growth, hardy materials in lieu of paving, allowing a three-foot bumper overhang while maintaining the required parking dimensions. Utilization of the bumper overhang concept shall not allow a vehicle to extend into or over a pedestrian walkway or vehicle access driveway. The additional landscaped area is considered part of the parking space and shall not be counted towards satisfying parking lot landscaping requirements identified in Subsection B. above.
    10. Larger projects. Parking lots with more than 100 spaces shall provide a concentration of landscape elements at primary entrances, including specimen trees (e.g., 24-, 36-, and 48-inch box), flowering plants, enhanced paving, and project identification.
    11. Reference to Chapter 17.44 (Landscaping). All parking lot landscaped areas shall be planted, irrigated, and properly maintained in compliance with Chapter 17.44 (Landscaping).

    17.46.240 - Parking Structure Yards and Landscaping

    1. Minimum landscaped area required. A parking structure located within a commercial or industrial zoning district having at‑grade parking adjoining a street shall have a minimum five‑foot wide landscaped area adjoining the street property line(s), unless the parking structure contains ground floor commercial uses adjoining the street property line(s).
    2. Upper levels over landscaping. Upper parking levels may be built over the area required for landscaping, provided the recessed area shall have a minimum vertical clearance of nine feet.

    17.46.250 - Central District Additional Standards for Parking

    Parking within the CD zoning district shall comply with the following requirements.

    1. Off-street parking facilities.

      1. All development projects within the CD zoning district shall comply with this Chapter, unless indicated otherwise within this Section.
      2. At grade or above ground off-street parking facilities shall not front on Colorado Boulevard, Garfield Avenue, Green Street, Holly Street, Lake Avenue, or any public street bordering City Hall, Memorial Park or Central Park although access to parking facilities shall be allowed where no other feasible alternative is available, or where access currently exists, as determined by the Zoning Administrator.
    2. Parking structure heights.

      1. Parking structures are allowed within the CD zoning district, provided they do not exceed the height of the main structure(s) they serve. The review authority may modify this requirement.
      2. Parking structures shall not qualify for the additional height permitted under the height averaging provisions.
    3. Parking lot standards. Surface parking lots are allowed within the CD zoning district, provided they meet the following standards, unless indicated otherwise in Subsection D. below.

      1. Surface parking shall not be located between a public street and the structures(s) it serves.
      2. Surface parking lots shall be located to the rear of structures in relation to the street. Through the Design Review process, the parking may be located to the side of the structure.
      3. The parking of vehicles within a surface parking lot shall not function as the main land use on a corner lot.
      4. The review authority may modify the requirements of this Subparagraph if the review authority finds that the modification would result in an improved parking lot layout and overall design.
      5. Development projects greater than one acre devoted to above-ground parking facilities shall not exceed 75 percent of the maximum allowable building floor area. Required parking in excess of this amount shall be located in subterranean facilities.
    4. Parking structure requirements. Parking structures located on streets identified as Setback Type 1 in Figure 3-7 (Central District Required Setbacks) shall provide commercial uses along the ground floor street frontage. Parking structures located on those streets identified in Figure 3-3 (Central District - Pedestrian-Oriented Uses) shall provide pedestrian-oriented used identified in the land use charts. The depth of this commercial space shall be a minimum of 50 feet.
    5. CD-1 Old Pasadena parking requirements. The required number of parking spaces for nonresidential uses in the CD-1 Old Pasadena Historic Core Precinct shall be equal to 75 percent of the number of spaces specified in this Chapter. This parking reduction shall apply only to the nonresidential portion of a mixed-use project. This reduction shall not be combined with other allowed parking reductions except that a parking reduction through the approval of a Minor Conditional Use Permit for shared parking is allowed. Projects shall comply with the parking caps contained in 17.50.340 (Transit-Oriented Development). (See Interpretation)

    17.46.260 - Number, Location, and Design of Off‑Street Loading Spaces

    1. Number of loading spaces required. Off‑street loading spaces shall be provided in compliance with Table 4-15 (Loading Space Requirements), below.
    2. Loading standards. The loading requirements of Table 4-15 are expressed as minimum standards.
    3. Rounding in calculations. If a fractional number is obtained in calculations performed in compliance with this Section, one loading space shall be required for a fractional unit of 0.50 or above, and no space shall be required for a fractional unit of less than 0.50.  (See Interpretation)

      Table 4-15 — Loading Space Requirements

      TYPE OF LAND USE TOTAL GROSS FLOOR AREA NUMBER OF SPACES REQUIRED

      Bars and taverns, food markets, industrial, public and semi-public, research and development, restaurants, and restaurants with take-out facilities.

      Less than 20,000 sq. ft.

      1

      20,000 sq. ft. and more

      One for every 20,000 sq. ft. or fraction thereof, not to exceed 6 spaces.

      All office uses.

      Less than 8,000 sq. ft.

      None

      8,000 to 40,000 sq. ft.

      1

      40,001 sq. ft. and more

      One for every 40,000 sq. ft. or fraction thereof, with a maximum of 4.

      All other commercial and other allowed nonresidential uses.

      Less than 8,000 sq. ft.

      None

      8,000 to 20,000 sq. ft.

      1

      20,001 sq. ft. and more

      One for every 20,000 sq. ft. or fraction thereof, with a maximum of 6.

    4. Amounts are cumulative. The square foot amounts specified in Table 4-15 above are cumulative. For example, if an existing office use of 20,000 square feet adds 10,000 square feet, the loading space requirement would be based on 30,000 square feet.
    5. Loading space sizes.

      1. For projects with 3,000 square feet or less of gross floor area, the first loading space shall be a minimum of 10 feet by 20 feet, with 12 feet of vertical clearance.
      2. For projects with over 3,000 square feet of gross floor area, the first loading space shall be a minimum of 12 feet by 30 feet, with 14 feet of vertical clearance.
      3. All additional loading spaces shall be a minimum of 10 feet by 20 feet, with 12 feet of vertical clearance.
    6. Minimum turning radius. The minimum turning radius shall be 25 feet for a loading space of 10 feet or less in width, and 45 feet for a loading space of over 10 feet in width.
    7. Not within setbacks. Loading spaces or areas shall not be located in required setbacks.
    8. Located on-site. Required loading spaces shall be on the site of the use or on an adjoining site.
    9. Common loading facilities.

      1. The off‑street loading facility requirements of this Chapter may be satisfied by the permanent allocation of the identified number of spaces for each use in a common truck loading facility serving several uses under different ownership.
      2. The total number of spaces shall not be less than the sum of the individual requirements.
      3. An attested copy of a contract between the parties concerned containing an agreement to the joint use of the common truck loading facility shall be filed with the Zoning Administrator.
    10. Adequate ingress and egress. All loading spaces shall have adequate ingress and egress as approved by the Director of Transportation, and shall be designed and maintained so that the maneuvering, loading, or unloading of vehicles does not interfere with the orderly movement of traffic and pedestrians on any street.
    11. Screening of loading spaces. Except in the CG and IG zoning districts, any loading spaces or areas visible from a street shall be screened on three sides by a fence, hedge, or wall a minimum of six feet in height.
    12. No parking in public rights-of-way. New loading spaces shall be designed and maintained so that vehicles do not park in a public right‑of‑way.
    13. No backing onto public street. All loading spaces shall be designed and maintained so that vehicles do not back in from, or onto, a public street.
    14. Exceptions to Subsection M., above. The Director of Transportation may allow an exception to the prohibition identified in Subsection M. above, only if the Director of Transportation first finds:

      1. The dimensions of the site do not provide for an adequate on-site turnaround area;
      2. Access/egress for the loading space is onto a minor street of low traffic volume, and is located at least 100 feet from any intersection; and
      3. The end of the loading space nearest to the street is located at least 40 feet from the curb on the opposite side of the street.
    15. Loading spaces.

      1. Located at rear of structure. Loading bays and roll-up doors shall be painted to blend with the exterior structure wall(s) and generally located at the rear of the structure.
      2. Concealment and screening required. Areas for loading and unloading shall be designed to avoid potential adverse noise, visual, and illumination impacts on neighboring residences. These areas shall be concealed from view by the public and adjoining land uses. Concealment and screening may be accomplished by use of any of the following, subject to the approval of the Zoning Administrator:

        1. Design the structures to enclose the outdoor loading and unloading service areas thereby providing for their concealment;
        2. Construct perimeter six- to eight-foot high walls to be architecturally coordinated with the primary structures and on-site landscaping; or
        3. Screen the loading and unloading areas with dense vegetative hedges, combined with the decorative six- to eight-foot high walls.
      3. May be located at side if screened from public view. When it is not possible or desirable to locate the loading facilities at the rear of the structures, the loading facilities shall be located on the side of the structures and shall be screened from the public street rights-of-way by a suitable combination of walls and landscaped berms, subject to the approval of the Zoning Administrator.
      4. Vehicles shall not extend beyond property line(s). The loading facilities shall be designed and placed on the site so that vehicles, whether rear loading or side loading may be loaded or unloaded at any loading area without the vehicles extending beyond the property line(s).
      5. If located in close proximity to residences. Special orientation or design treatment of the loading spaces located in close proximity to neighboring residences shall be required in order to reduce the associated light and acoustical impacts to less-than-significant levels, subject to the approval of the Zoning Administrator.
    16. Loading ramp profile required. Plans for loading ramps or truck wells shall be accompanied by a profile drawing showing the ramp, ramp transitions, and overhead clearances.
    17. Striping. Loading spaces shall be striped indicating the loading spaces and identifying the spaces for "loading only." The striping shall be permanently maintained by the property owner/tenant in a clear and visible manner at all times.

    17.46.270 - Ramps

    1. Profile required. All parking plans involving ramps shall be accompanied by a profile showing the ramp, ramp transitions, and overhead and adjacent wall clearances.
    2. Length of ramp defined. The length of a ramp is defined as that portion of the ramp from the beginning of the transition at one end of the ramp to the end of the transition at the opposite end of the ramp.
    3. Maximum grade for ramps 65 feet or less in length. For ramps 65 feet or less in length, the ramp grade shall not exceed 16 percent, with the first and last 10 feet of the ramp not exceeding eight percent.
    4. Maximum grade for ramps longer than 65 feet. For ramps longer than 65 feet, the ramp grade shall not exceed 12 percent, with the first and last eight feet of the ramp not exceeding six percent.
    5. Maximum parking area slope. The slope of all parking areas shall not exceed five percent, excluding ramps.
    6. Standards for ramps within multi-family developments. Ramps within multi-family projects utilizing development standards of Section 17.22.060 (RM District General Development Standards) shall comply with the following:

      1. Maximum grade for ramps. The maximum grade of ramps shall be 16 percent. Any deviation shall first be approved by the City Traffic Engineer.
      2. Minimum width of ramps. The width of ramps shall conform to the requirements for the widths of driveways identified in Section 17.46.150 (Driveway Design, Widths, and Clearances), above.
    7. Exceptions: The Director of Transportation may modify the ramp grade requirement.

    17.46.280 - Driveway Paving for Multi-Family Projects

    For projects utilizing the multi-family development standards of Section 17.22.060 (RM District General Development Standards), the following driveway paving standards shall apply:

    1. Paving required. Parking areas, driveways, and paths accessing parking shall be paved in compliance with the guidelines issued by the Department of Public Works.
    2. Maximum parking area slope. The slope of all parking areas, excluding ramps, shall not exceed five percent.

    17.46.290 - Trip Reduction Requirements for Residential and Nonresidential Projects

    1. Purpose. The purpose of the trip reduction requirements is to reduce the demand for vehicle commute trips by ensuring that the design of major residential and nonresidential development projects accommodates facilities for alternative modes of transportation.
    2. Projects exceeding 25,000 square feet of gross floor area. Nonresidential development projects, and the nonresidential portion of mixed‑use development projects, which exceed 25,000 square feet of gross floor area, as a result of new construction or an expansion of an existing use, shall provide the following:

      1. Carpool and vanpool parking. A minimum of 10 percent of the employee parking spaces shall be reserved for and designated as preferential parking for carpool and vanpool vehicles. The parking area shall be in a location more convenient to the place of employment than parking spaces for single occupant vehicles, and shall be located as close as possible to the employee entrance.
      2. Bicycle parking. Bicycle parking shall be provided on site in compliance with Section 17.46.320 (Bicycle Parking Standards).
      3. Trip reduction plan. A transportation plan for smaller projects, or a Transportation Demand Management Program (“TDM”) Plan, shall be submitted which complies with Chapter 10.64 of the Municipal Code (Transportation Management Program).
    3. Projects exceeding 75,000 square feet of gross floor area. Nonresidential development projects, and the nonresidential portion of mixed‑use development projects, which exceed 75,000 square feet of gross floor area, as a result of new construction or an expansion of an existing use, shall meet the requirements of Subsection B., immediately above, in addition to the following:

      1. Carpool and vanpool loading area. A passenger loading area for carpool and vanpool vehicles shall be provided on site. At a minimum, the area shall be of sufficient size to accommodate the number of waiting vehicles equivalent to 10 percent of the required number of carpool and vanpool spaces.
      2. Connecting sidewalks. Designated pedestrian sidewalks or paths shall be provided on the development site between the external pedestrian system and each structure in the development.
      3. Bus stop improvements. Bus stop improvements, including bus pads, bus pullouts, and right‑of‑way for bus shelters may be required as mitigation measures if a proposed development would have substantial traffic impacts.
    4. Residential projects. Multi-family projects with 100 units or more, or mixed use projects with 50 units or more, shall submit a TDM Program Plan as required by Chapter 10.64 of the Municipal Code (Transportation Management Program).

    17.46.300 - Paving

    1. Paving required. All parking areas, circulation aisles, and accessways shall be paved with Portland cement concrete.
    2. Optional paving materials. Other paving materials, including brick, decomposed granite, or gravel may be substituted with the approval of the Zoning Administrator, and in compliance with the City's adopted standards for privately owned and maintained parking areas.

    17.46.310 - Electric Recharge Stations

    1. Applicability. Electric recharge stations shall be provided:

      1. In new development projects required to provide at least 250 motor vehicle parking spaces; and
      2. For remodeling and expansion of existing development projects that would result in at least 250 additional motor vehicle parking spaces.
    2. Number of spaces required.

      1. At least one conductive and one inductive charger shall be provided in each project required to provide between 250 and 500 parking spaces.
      2. An additional conductive and inductive charger shall be provided for each 250 required parking spaces over 500, with a maximum of six.
      3. The Zoning Administrator may reduce the number of parking spaces in an existing parking facility for projects that are not required to install charging equipment, but agree to do so voluntarily.
      4. The maximum reduction allowed by Subparagraph 3., above, shall be one parking space for each space provided with both a conductive and inductive charger.

    17.46.320 - Bicycle Parking Standards

    1. Applicability. Bicycle parking facilities shall be provided for any new structure, or an addition to any existing structure that exceeds 15,000 square feet in gross floor area.
    2. Bicycle spaces required. Bicycle parking facilities shall be provided in compliance with Table 4-16 (Minimum Number of Bicycle Spaces Required), below, with fractional requirements for bicycle parking over 0.5 to be rounded up.

      Table 4-16 — Minimum Number of Bicycle Spaces Required

      Type of Use

      Minimum Number of Bicycle

      Parking Spaces Required

      All nonresidential structures less that 15,000 square feet

      Four parking spaces (all Class 2)

      All nonresidential structures 15,000 square feet or more

      Five percent of the required motor vehicle parking; but not less than four parking spaces

      Multi-family residential structures

      (3 or more dwelling units) including units in a mixed-use project

      1 space for every six dwelling units

      Public, Semi-Public Uses

      As established by the Conditional Use Permit

    3. Type of bicycle parking required. Each bicycle parking space shall be no less than six feet long by two feet wide and shall have a bicycle rack system in compliance with the bicycle rack classifications listed in Subsection D., below. Fractional amounts of the type of parking facilities may be shifted as desired.

      Table 4-17 — Type of Bicycle Spaces Required

      Type of Use

      Type Required

      Industrial and offices uses

      15,000 square feet or more

      75% Class 1

      25% Class 2

      Retail service uses

      15,000 square feet or more

      25% Class 1

      75% Class 2

      Multi-family residential structures

      (three or more dwelling units)

      100% Class 1

      (garages or accessible indoor areas count)

      Public, Semi-Public Uses

      As established by the Conditional Use Permit

    4. Classification of facilities.

      1. Class 1 bicycle facility. Includes any of the following:

        1. A fully enclosed lockable space accessible only to the owner/operator of the bicycle;
        2. Attendant parking with a check-in system in which bicycles are accessible only to the attendant; or
        3. A locked room or office inside a structure designated for the sole purpose of securing the bicycles.
      2. Class 2 bicycle facility. A rack, stand, or other device constructed to enable the user to secure the bicycle by locking the frame and one wheel of each bicycle.

        1. The racks shall:

          (1) Be easily usable with both U-locks and cable locks; and

          (2) Support the bicycles in a stable upright position so that a bicycle, if bumped, will not fall or roll down.

        2. Racks that support a bicycle primarily by a wheel (e.g., standard "wire racks") are damaging to the wheels and are not allowed.
    5. Location and design of bicycle facilities.

      1. Bicycle parking facilities shall:

        1. Be located in close proximity to the structure's entrance and clustered in lots not to exceed sixteen spaces in each lot;
        2. Support bicycles in a stable position without damage to the frame, wheels, or other components;
        3. Be located in highly visible, well-lighted areas to minimize theft and vandalism;
        4. Be securely anchored to the lot surface so they cannot be easily removed and shall be of sufficient strength to resist theft and vandalism;
        5. Not impede pedestrian or vehicular circulation, and should be harmonious with their environment. The facilities shall be incorporated, whenever possible, into the structure's design or street furniture; and
        6. Be separated by a physical barrier to protect the bicycle from damage by motor vehicles if located within a vehicle parking area. The physical barrier can be curbs, poles, wheel stops, or other similar features.
      2. Bicycle racks shall not be placed too close to a wall or other obstruction so as to make use difficult. There shall be sufficient space (at least twenty-four inches) besides each parked bicycle to allow easy access. Adjacent bicycles may share this access.
      3. Motor vehicle entrances shall display adequate signs to indicate the availability and location of the bicycle parking facilities.
      4. The bicycle parking facilities within a vehicle parking garage shall be located in close view of a parking attendant if the facility has a bicycle attendant.
    6. Modified by Zoning Administrator. Where the provision of bicycle parking is physically not feasible, the requirements of this Section may be modified by the Zoning Administrator.

    Chapter 17.48 - Signs

    Sections:

    17.48.010 - Purpose

    This Chapter provides standards for signs to safeguard life, health, property, safety, and public welfare, while encouraging compatibility, creativity, variety, and enhancement of the City's visual image. The specific purposes of sign regulation are to:

    1. Provide each sign user an opportunity for effective identification by regulating the time, place, and manner under which signs may be displayed;
    2. Enable users of goods and services to identify establishments offering services to meet their needs;
    3. Ensure freedom of expression for all sign uses by maintaining a content-neutral approach to sign regulation;
    4. Regulate the number and size of signs according to standards consistent with the purpose of each zoning district;
    5. Protect residential districts adjoining nonresidential districts from adverse impacts of excessive numbers or sizes of signs nearby;
    6. Encourage creative, well-designed signs that contribute in a positive way to the City's visual environment, and help maintain an image of quality for the City;
    7. Ensure that signs are responsive to the aesthetics and character of their particular location (adjacent buildings and surrounding neighborhood) and that are compatible and integrated with the building's architectural design, including historic building elements, and with other signs on the property; and
    8. Ensure the quality of the City's appearance by avoiding clutter and by subjecting certain signs to the Design Review process.

    17.48.020 - Applicability

    1. Signs allowed. The sign standards in this Chapter are intended to apply to all types of signs in each zoning district in the City. Only signs authorized by this Chapter shall be allowed.
    2. New zoning district. If a new zoning district is created after the enactment of this Chapter, no signs shall be allowed until this Chapter is amended to govern the new zoning district.
    3. Design guidelines. The Sign Design Guidelines shall be used during the Design Review process (Section 17.61.030) to ensure that signs are well designed, compatible with their surroundings, and do not detract from the overall visual quality of the City.
    4. Exceptions. Exceptions to the standards of this Chapter may be allowed through the approval of a Sign Exception in compliance with Section 17.48.050 (Sign Exceptions).
    5. Nonconforming signs. An existing legally allowed sign that does not conform to the requirements of this Chapter shall be deemed a nonconforming sign and shall be subject to the requirements of Section 17.48.140 (Nonconforming Signs).

    17.48.030 - Building Permit and Design Review Required

    1. Building Permit required. To ensure compliance with the regulations of this Chapter, a Building Permit shall be required in order to alter, apply, erect, move, or reconstruct a permanent sign, except signs or routine maintenance that are exempt from the regulations of this Chapter in compliance with 17.48.040 (Exempt Signs and Maintenance) below.
    2. Approval authority. The Department shall have the authority to ministerially approve Building Permits for signs in conjunction with the Building Official.
    3. Design review. Nonexempt signs on the site of a project subject to Design Review shall be reviewed by the Director or Design Commission in the same manner as other project components in compliance with Section 17.61.030 (Design Review).

    17.48.040 - Exempt Signs and Maintenance

    The following signs and their maintenance are exempt from other requirements of this Chapter if developed and maintained in compliance with the provisions/limitations of this Section. All signs should be maintained in compliance with Section 17.48.100.E1. All routine, general maintenance and repair of signs shall be exempt from Building Permit Approval.

    1. Accessory signs. Signs manufactured as a standard integral part of a mass-produced product accessory to a commercial or public or semi-public use, including automated teller machines, gasoline pumps, and telephone booths. The signs may contain the company's name and/or logo only. No advertising message shall be provided.
    2. Affiliation signs. Signs that provide notices of services (e.g., credit cards accepted, trade affiliations, etc.). Signs or notices shall not exceed one square foot in area for each sign, and no more than three signs shall be allowed for each business.
    3. Decorative flags and banners. Flags and banners of a purely decorative nature that do not contain any commercial or noncommercial messages. Limited to a total of four per use with a maximum size of 32 square feet each.
    4. Names of buildings. Names of buildings, dates of erection, monumental citations, commemorative tablets and the like, when carved into concrete, stone, or similar material or made of aluminum, bronze, or other permanent type of material and made an integral part of the structure. Signs shall be wall mounted only, shall not exceed six feet in height, and shall not be illuminated.
    5. Official signs. Signs of a noncommercial nature and in the public interest, erected by, or on the order of, a public officer (e.g., danger signs, public notices, safety signs, traffic and directional signs, trespassing signs, etc.).
    6. Signs within buildings. Signs within a building five feet or more from a window.
    7. Signs within interior spaces. Signs within an interior arcade, courtyard, mall, or similar area and not visible or intended to be visible from an alley, parking lot, or street.
    8. Site address. Limited to two for each street address. Individual numbers and letters shall have a minimum height of four inches and width of two inches and shall not exceed a height of eight inches for residential uses and 24 inches for nonresidential uses.
    9. Window signs. Signs consisting of individual lettering not exceeding four inches in height with a total sign area of two square feet per window.
    10. Incidental residential signs. Signs in residential zoning districts that are no more than one square foot in area (e.g., beware of dog, keep off grass, private property, etc.) No more than four of these signs shall be allowed.

    17.48.050 - Sign Exceptions

    1. Purpose. Sign Exceptions are a form of a Variance from the sign regulations of this Chapter.
    2. Procedures.

      1. The Hearing Officer shall be the applicable review authority for Sign Exceptions.
      2. The procedures for a Sign Exception shall be the same as for a Minor Variance, including those for notice and hearing upon request.
    3. Findings and decision. The applicable review authority shall record the decision in writing with the findings on which the decision is based. Following a public hearing, if required, the review authority may approve a Sign Exception application, with or without conditions, only after first finding that:

      1. The proposed sign is architecturally and aesthetically compatible with the major structures on the subject site and adjacent sites and is compatible with the character of the established neighborhood and general environment;
      2. Granting the application is in conformance with the goals, policies, and objectives of the General Plan and the purpose and intent of any applicable specific plan, and the purposes of this Zoning Code and would not constitute a grant of special privilege inconsistent with the limitations on other properties in the vicinity and the same zoning district; and
      3. Granting the application would not be detrimental or injurious to property or improvements in the vicinity of the subject site, or to the public health, safety, or general welfare.

    17.48.060 - Master Sign Plan

    1. Purpose. A Master Sign Plan is intended to integrate project signs into the architectural design of the site, thereby creating an architectural statement of high quality. A Master Sign Plan provides a flexible means of applying and modifying the sign regulations in this Chapter to ensure high quality in the design and display of multiple permanent signs for a project or use and to encourage creativity and excellence in the design of signs. It is expected that the design quality of signs proposed under a Master Sign Plan will be of a superior quality and creativity to those that might result through the normal sign permit process. The provisions of a Master Sign Plan shall not include temporary banners.
    2. Applicability. The approval of a Master Sign Plan shall be required whenever any of the following circumstances exist:

      1. Whenever six or more separate nonresidential tenant spaces are created on the same parcel;
      2. Whenever six or more permanent non-exempt signs are proposed for a single use; and
      3. Whenever the Director determines that a Master Sign Plan is needed because of special project characteristics (e.g., the size of proposed signs, limited site visibility, a business within a business, the location of the site relative to major transportation routes, etc.) or when unique, creatively designed signs are being proposed and certain aspects of the sign's design (e.g., animation) might not otherwise be allowed.
    3. Approval authority. A Master Sign Plan shall be approved by the Director before the issuance of a Building Permit. In approving a Master Sign Plan, the Director shall find that the plan's contribution to the design quality of the site and the surrounding area will be superior to the quality that would result under the regulations of this Chapter.
    4. Modification of regulations. A Master Sign Plan may include sign regulations that are, at the same time, both more restrictive in some respects and less restrictive in other respects than the regulations established in this Chapter. Allowed modifications may relate to sign area, number of signs, height, and location. Less restrictive provisions in a Master Sign Plan shall not include signs that are otherwise prohibited by this Chapter. The applicant may appeal a decision of the Director to the Design Commission.
    5. Application requirements. A Master Sign Plan shall include all information and materials required by the Department, and the filing fee in compliance with the Council's Fee Resolution.
    6. Findings. In order to approve a Master Sign Plan, the following findings shall first be made:

      1. The Master Sign Plan complies with the purpose of this Chapter, including the Sign Design Guidelines;
      2. Proposed signs enhance the overall development and are in harmony with other signs included in the plan with the structures they identify and with surrounding development;
      3. The Master Sign Plan contains provisions to accommodate future revisions that may be required because of changes in use or tenants; and
      4. The Master Sign Plan complies with the standards of this Chapter, except that flexibility is allowed with regard to sign area, number, location, and/or height to the extent that the Master Sign Plan will enhance the overall development, achieve superior quality design, and will more fully accomplish the purposes of this Chapter.
    7. Revisions to Master Sign Plans.

      1. Revisions to Master Sign Plans may be approved by the Director if the intent of the original approval is not affected.
      2. Revisions that would substantially deviate from the original approval shall require the approval of a new Master Sign Plan.

    17.48.070 - Creative Sign Permit

    1. Purpose. This Section establishes standards and procedures for the review and approval of Creative Sign Permits. The purposes of the Creative Sign Permit are to:

      1. Encourage signs of unique design that exhibit a high degree of imagination, inventiveness, spirit, and thoughtfulness; and
      2. Provide a process for the application of sign regulations in ways that will allow creatively designed signs that make a positive visual contribution to the overall image of the City, while mitigating the impacts of large or unusually designed signs.
    2. Applicability. An applicant may request approval of a Creative Sign Permit in order to allow standards that differ from the provisions of this Chapter but comply with the purpose and findings of this Section.
    3. Application requirements. A Creative Sign Permit application shall include all information and materials required by the Department and the filing fee in compliance with the Council's Fee Resolution.
    4. Approval authority. An application for a Creative Sign Permit shall be subject to review and approval by the Director.
    5. Findings. In approving an application for a Creative Sign Permit, the Director shall ensure that the proposed sign meets the following design criteria.

      1. Design quality. The sign shall:

        1. Constitute a substantial aesthetic improvement to the site and shall have a positive visual impact on the surrounding area;
        2. Be of unique design, and exhibit a high degree of imagination, inventiveness, spirit, and thoughtfulness; and
        3. Provide strong graphic character through the imaginative use of color, graphics, proportion, quality materials, scale, and texture.
      2. Contextual criteria. The sign shall contain at least one of the following elements:

        1. Classic historic design style;
        2. Creative image reflecting current or historic character of the City; or
        3. Inventive representation of the logo, name, or use of the structure or business.
      3. Architectural criteria. The sign shall:

        1. Utilize or enhance the architectural elements of the building; and
        2. Be placed in a logical location in relation to the overall composition of the building's facade and not cover any key architectural features and details of the facade.
      4. Impacts on surrounding uses. The sign shall be located and designed not to cause light and glare impacts on surrounding uses, especially residential uses.

    17.48.080 - Regulations for On-Premises Signs

    Tables 4-18 through 4-21 (Sign Standards by Zoning District) prescribe regulations applying to signs within each base zoning district. Section numbers in the last column reference additional regulations located elsewhere in this Chapter.

    17.48.090 - Sign Standards by Zoning District

    1. Signs allowed in the RS, RM, OS, and PS, zoning district.

      Table 4-18 - RS, RM, OS, and PS zoning district sign standards

      Sign Class

      Allowed Sign Types

      Maximum Number

      Maximum Sign

      Area

      Maximum Sign Height

      Location

      Requirements

      Lighting Allowed

      Additional Requirements

      1. RS, RM-16, RM-32 and RM-48 Districts

      Wall mounted or freestanding

       

      25 sq. ft. per dwelling unit cumulative total for commercial, noncommercial and temporary signs

       

       

       

       

      Commercial Signs

      Wall mounted or freestanding Four signs per parcel One square foot per sign 10 ft. and below edge of roof   See 17.48.100.D.8  

      Noncommercial Signs

      Wall mounted or freestanding   16 sq. ft. per sign

      10 ft. and below edge of roof

        See 17.48.100.D.8 See 17.48.115

      2. PS and OS Districts

      Wall mounted or monument

      One per property frontage

      20 sq. ft.(1)

      Below edge of roof: 5 ft. monument

       

      Yes

       

      (1) Larger signs may be allowed in the OS and PS zoning district with Conditional Use Permit Approval.

    2. Signs allowed in the CO zoning district.

      Table 4-19 - CO Zoning District Sign Standards

      Sign Class

      Allowed Sign Types

      Maximum Number

      Maximum Sign Area

      Maximum Sign Height

      Location

      Requirements

      Lighting Allowed?

      Additional Requirements

      1. Business identification: Primary building frontage

      Wall or monument

      One per property frontage (1)

      1 sq. ft. per foot of primary building frontage

      Below edge of roof: 5 ft. monument

       

      Yes

       

      2. Business identification: Secondary building frontage

      Wall or monument

      One per property frontage (1)

      1 sq. ft. per foot of  secondary  building frontage

      Below edge of roof: 5 ft. monument

       

      Yes

       

      3. Building or project identification: multi-tenant sites

      Wall or monument

      One per property frontage (1)

      1 sq. ft. per foot of primary or secondary building frontage

      20 ft. or bottom of second story windows: 5 ft. for monument

       

      Yes

       

      4. Tenant directory: multi-tenant buildings

      Wall

      One per property frontage (1)

      1 sq. ft. per foot of primary or secondary building  frontage. 8 sq. ft. max per sign

         

      Yes

       

      5. Single-family and Multi-family uses shall use the sign standards for RS and RM Districts of Subsection A., above.

                   

      (1) A sign on an awning valance shall be exempt from the maximum number requirements if the sign meets the requirements of 17.48.110.A.

       

    3. Signs allowed in the CD zoning district.

      Table 4-20 — CD Zoning District Sign Standards

      Sign Class

      Allowed Sign Types

      Maximum Number

      Maximum Sign Area

      Maximum Sign Height

      Location

      Requirements

      Lighting Allowed?

      Additional Requirements

      1. Business identification:

      Wall, projecting, window and awning

      Wall, projecting, and awning signs, in any combination of 2 signs max. per ground floor occupancy (1)(3). One sign per basement occupancy. Second story, window, or waning signs only.(2)(3)

       

      1.5 sq. ft. of sign per foot of primary building frontage total for any combination of wall and/or projecting signs.

      20 sq. ft. max for projecting signs. Window signs, 25% max of each window area.

      25 ft. or bottom of lowest second story window whichever is lower.

      17.48.110.A, B E, F and G

      Yes

      See 17.48.110 for sign standards by sign type

      2. Business identification: (additional sign for multi-frontage occupancy)

      Wall, projecting, window and awning

      Wall, projecting, and awning sign, 1 additional sign for multi-frontage ground floor occupancy (3). Limited to two signs per frontage.

      1 sq. ft. of sign per foot secondary property building  frontage. 20 sq. ft. max for projecting signs.

      25 ft. or bottom of lowest second story window whichever is lower.

      17.48.110.A, B E, F and G

      Yes

      Limited to multi-frontage occupancy

      3. Business identification:(monument or freestanding) Monument One sign for each 200 feet of property frontage. 0.5 sq. ft. of sign area per foot property frontage, 40 sq. ft. max 8 ft. 17.48.110.C Yes See 17.48.110 for sign standards by sign type

      4. Building identification: (buildings greater than 75 feet in height)

      Wall

      One per wall plane. 4 sign max

      1 sq. ft. of sign area per foot of primary or secondary building frontage at sign location. 100 sq. ft. max per sign

      Below top edge of roof

       

      Yes

      Limited to buildings greater than 75 feet in height. Not allowed in CD-1

      5. Business directory: multi-tenant buildings

      Wall

      One per frontage

      8 sq. ft.

         

      Yes

      See 17.48.110.J

      6. Single-family and Multi-family uses shall use the sign standards for RS and RM Districts of Subsection A., above.

                   

      (1) The aggregate total of business identification signs is two. Business identification signs include wall, projecting, and awning signs. All other signs (i.e., building identification, window, directory, and temporary signs) are not included in this restriction.

      (2) Wall signs shall be allowed for second-story occupancies with exterior entrances.

      (3) A sign on an awning valance shall be exempt from the maximum number requirements if the sign meets the requirements of 17.48.110.A.

    4. Signs allowed in the CL, CG, IG zoning district.

      Table 4-21 — CL, CG, and IG Zoning District Sign Standards

      Sign Class

      Allowed Sign Types

      Maximum Number

      Maximum Sign Area

      Maximum Sing Height

      Location

      Requirements

      Lighting Allowed?

      Additional Requirements

      1. Business identification:

      Wall, projecting, window and awning

      Wall, projecting, and awning signs, in any combination of 2 signs max. per ground floor occupancy per frontage(1)(3). Second story window, or waning signs only. (2)(3)

      1.5 sq. ft. of sign area per foot of primary or secondary building frontage total for any combination of wall and/or projecting signs.

      20 sq. ft. max for projecting signs. Window signs, 25% max of each window area.

      25 ft. or bottom of lowest second story window, whichever is lower.

      17.48.110

      Yes

      See 17.48.100 for sign standards by sign type

      2. Business identification:

      Freestanding (pylon and monument)

      One sign for each 250 feet of property frontage.

      1.0 sq. ft. of sign area per linear foot of property frontage, 150 sq. ft. max per sign.

      If lot width is less than 100 ft. max sing height = 8 ft.

      101 ft. to 200 ft. = 15 ft. max height

      Over 200 ft.=20 ft. max height.

      17.48.110

      Yes

      See 17.48.110 for sign standards by sign type

      3. Building identification:

      Wall

      One per wall plane. 4 signs max.

      1.5 sq. ft. of sign area per foot of primary or secondary building frontage at sign location.

      Below edge of roof.

       

      Yes

      Limited to buildings greater than 75 feet in height.

      4. Business directory: multi-tenant buildings

      Wall

      One per property frontage

      8 sq. ft.

      6 ft.

       

      Yes

       
      5. Single-family and Multi-family uses shall use the sign standards for RS and RM Districts of Subsection A., above.              

      (1) The aggregate total of business identification signs is two. Business identification signs include wall, projecting, and awning signs. All other signs (i.e., building identification, window, directory, and temporary signs) are not included in this restriction.

      (2) Wall signs shall be allowed for second-story occupancies with exterior entrances

      (3) A sign on an awning valance shall be exempt from the maximum number requirements if the sign meets the requirements of 17.48.110.A.

    17.48.100 - General Provisions for On-Premise Signs

    1. Change or vacation of business. When the name of a business location changes or upon vacating a business location, the business or property owner shall remove the sign copy that advertised the previous business. At no time shall a sign cabinet remain empty and without a copy panel so that the internal lighting and electrical fixtures are exposed. During any period when a sign cabinet is not being utilized for identification of a business, a blank opaque copy panel (face) shall be installed in the sign cabinet structure.
    2. Frontage allocation not transferable. No sign or sign area allowed on one frontage shall be transferred to another frontage.
    3. Historic signs. A sign designated as a Category 1 historic resource (Section 17.62.040.D) shall be exempt from the requirements of this Chapter as to height, illumination, location, movement, and sign area and may be maintained as legally conforming signs subject to the following conditions.

      1. All parts of the exempted historic sign including neon tubes, incandescent lights and shields, and sign faces shall be maintained in a functioning condition as historically intended for the sign to the greatest degree possible.
      2. Parts of historic signs originally designed to flash or move may be allowed to continue to flash or move. There shall be no alterations to the historic pattern, speed, or direction of flashing or moving elements.
      3. The wording or image of a historic sign may be altered only if the alterations do not substantially change the historic dimensions, height, scale, style, or type of materials of the historic sign.
      4. Failure to maintain a historic sign as required above shall be grounds for disallowing an exemption from the requirements of this Chapter. The sign shall thereafter be brought into compliance with the requirements of this Chapter subject to a determination by the Director.
      5. Full reconstruction of a historic sign shall require approval of the Historic Preservation Commission or, in the CD zoning district, the Design Commission.
    4. Illumination of signs. The artificial illumination of signs, either from an internal or external source, shall be designed to eliminate negative impacts on surrounding rights-of-way and properties. The following standards shall apply to all illuminated signs:

      1. External light sources shall be directed and shielded to limit direct illumination of any object other than the sign.
      2. Signs shall not have exposed fluorescent tubes or incandescent bulbs exceeding 15 watts, and the brightness of luminous or backlighted signs shall not exceed 250 footlamberts.
      3. Light sources (e.g., light bulbs) used for externally illuminated signs shall not be visible within 100 feet of any residential zoning district. Internally illuminated signs visible from any residential zoning district shall not be illuminated between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. unless they identify an establishment open for business during those hours.
      4. Electrical raceways and conduits shall be placed so that they are not within public view. Where this is physically impractical, or doing so would damage significant architectural features or materials, the Zoning Administrator may grant a waiver of this requirement provided all conduits, raceways, and similar devices are kept as small as possible and are painted the same colors as adjacent wall surfaces.
      5. Signs with electrical components shall be constructed, inspected, and approved by the Underwriters Laboratory (UL), or equal, and a label of approval from the laboratory shall be affixed to the sign in plain view.
      6. The use of neon signs and lighting is regulated by Section 17.48.110.D (Neon signs and architectural lighting).
      7. Awnings with back-lit text or graphics are not allowed.
      8. For residential districts, the lighting shall not exceed one-foot candle.
    5. Maintenance, alteration, and removal.

      1. All signs and sign structures including those otherwise specifically exempt from the provisions of this Chapter, including all parts, portions, and materials, shall be maintained in good repair, and structurally sound. The display surface of all signs shall be kept clean, neatly painted, and free from rust and corrosion. Banners shall be replaced if tattered or worn. Any cracks, broken surfaces, malfunctioning lights, missing sign copy, or other unmaintained or damaged portion of a sign shall be repaired or replaced within 30 calendar days following notification by the City. Noncompliance with the notification shall constitute a public nuisance.
      2. Existing signs shall not be physically altered (except for routine general maintenance and repair), moved, or relocated unless the sign complies with all provisions of this Chapter. Legal, nonconforming signs shall comply with the requirements of Section 17.48.140.
      3. When a sign is removed or replaced, all brackets, poles, and other structural elements that supported the sign shall also be removed. Affected building surfaces shall be restored to match the adjacent portion of the structure.
    6. Measurement of sign height. The height of a sign shall be measured as the vertical distance from the uppermost point used in measuring the area of the sign to the lowest elevation of the existing grade immediately below and adjoining the sign. See figures 4-13 and 4-14.

      Figure 4-13 — Sign height

      Text Box:

      Figure 4-14 — Sign height

      Figure 4-13
    7. Measurement of sign area.

      1. The surface area of a sign shall be calculated by enclosing the extreme limits of all lettering, background, emblem, logo, corporate banding, representation, or other display within a single continuous perimeter composed of squares or rectangles with no more than eight lines drawn at right angles. See figure 4-15.

        Figure 4-15 — Sign area measurement

        Figure 4-15
      2. Supporting framework or bracing that is clearly incidental to the display itself shall not be computed as sign area.
      3. Double-faced signs with back-to-back sign faces shall be regarded as a single face sign if the distance between each sign face does not exceed two feet at any point.
      4. Where a sign contains three-dimensional objects (e.g., balls, cubes, clusters of objects, sculpture, or statue-like objects), the sign area shall be measured as the maximum projection of the objects upon a single vertical plane.

        Figure 4-16 — Types of signs

        Figure 4-16

    17.48.110 - Standards for Specific Types of Permanent Signs

    1. Awning signs.

      1. Lettering shall be allowed on awning valances only and shall not exceed eight inches in height. Logos, symbols, and graphics that do not include text may be allowed on the shed (slope) portion of an awning and shall not exceed four square feet in area for each awning.
      2. Lettering shall be located within the middle 70 percent of the valance area.
      3. Only permanent signs that are an integral part of the awning or architectural projection shall be allowed. Temporary signs shall not be placed on awnings.
      4. Awning signs shall only be allowed for first and second story occupancies.
      5. Awnings shall not be lighted from under the awning (back-lit) so that the awning appears internally illuminated. Lighting directed downwards that does not illuminate the awning is allowed.
      6. Awnings shall be regularly cleaned and kept free of dust and visible defects.
    2. Changeable copy signs.

      1. Changeable copy signs may be allowed in conjunction with facilities used exclusively for the presentation of cultural, religious, and theatrical activities, and similar group assembly uses including schools.
      2. Changeable copy signs shall be included in the allowed maximum sign area for a use.
    3. Freestanding signs.

      1. Freestanding signs include monument and pylon signs and shall be allowed only for frontages adjoining a public street.

        Figure 4-17 — Pylon sign

        Text Box:

        Figure 4-18 — Monument sign

        Text Box:

      2. Freestanding signs shall be set back a minimum of five feet from a street property line, a minimum of five feet from an interior property line, and a minimum of 10 feet from the edge of a driveway. This requirement shall not apply within the Central District. Figure 4-17 and 4-18.
      3. There shall be a minimum of 250 feet between freestanding signs on the same site or 30 feet between signs on adjoining sites to ensure adequate visibility for all signs.
      4. For corner lots, freestanding signs shall not be located in the required 25-foot vision triangle. On a case-by-case basis, this requirement may be waived by the Director of Transportation. See Figure 4-19.

        Figure 4-19 — Location of freestanding signs

        Figure 4-19

      5. Freestanding signs shall be a minimum of 50 feet from a lot line of any residentially zoned property.
      6. Freestanding signs shall not project over any building, or over any on-site driveway or vehicle circulation area in a parking facility.
      7. No more than six tenants are allowed for each freestanding sign.
      8. The supporting structure of a freestanding sign shall not include exposed metal pole(s), but should be surrounded by a decorative pole cover architecturally compatible with the sign cabinet.
      9. Landscaping with automatic irrigation shall be provided at the base of the supporting structure equal to twice the area of one face of the sign or 75 square feet, whichever is greater. For example, 40 sq. ft. of sign area = 80 sq. ft. of landscaped area. Landscaping is not required in the CD zoning district.
      10. Freestanding signs shall contain an address plate identifying the subject property. Numbers shall be a minimum of six inches in height and shall be clearly visible from the public right-of-way. Address plates shall not be calculated against the allowed sign area.
    4. Neon signs and architectural lighting. The use of neon tubes for signs or architectural elements shall be allowed in commercial zoning districts only subject to the following requirements.

      1. Neon signs and linear tubing shall be UL (Underwriters Laboratories) listed with a maximum 30 milliamps per circuit and be designed to accommodate a dimmer in order to reduce the brightness of the neon.
      2. The neon manufacturer shall be registered with Underwriters Laboratories.
      3. Neon tubing shall not exceed one half inch in diameter.
      4. Neon lighting adjacent to residential uses shall not exceed one half footcandle measured at the property line.
      5. Neon tubing shall not be combined with any reflective materials (e.g., highly glazed tiles, mirrors, polished metal, or other similar materials.
      6. When used as an architectural element, neon tubing shall be used only to reinforce specific architectural elements of the structure and shall be concealed from view whenever possible through the use of cornices, ledges, or parapets.
      7. Neon signs placed within five feet of a storefront window shall not occupy more than 25 percent of the window area.
      8. Neon lighting that completely surrounds a door, window, or similar element is not allowed.
    5. Projecting signs.

      1. Projecting signs shall not be less than eight feet above the surface over which they project in pedestrian areas. Signs shall not project more than five feet into a public right-of-way and shall not project closer than two feet to a curb.
      2. Projecting signs shall not project into an alley more than three feet and shall not be less than 14 feet above the alley surface where vehicles are allowed.
      3. Projecting signs may have a maximum thickness of 18 inches.
      4. Internally illuminated projecting signs shall have opaque face panels so that only the letters, logos, numbers, or symbols appear illuminated.
      5. Projecting signs shall not be closer than 15 feet to another projecting sign or to a freestanding sign or five feet from an interior property line or line dividing two separate business frontages. The Zoning Administrator may waive this requirement in the CD zoning district where it can be clearly demonstrated that it severely limits proper sign placement.
      6. Projecting signs shall not project above an apparent eave or parapet, including the eave of a simulated hipped or mansard roof.
      7. Projecting signs shall not be attached to the sloping face of mansard overhangs or other architectural devices intended to resemble or imitate roof structures.
      8. Projecting signs may be mounted flush to a building wall if they do not damage or obscure architectural details or historic materials. In cases where a projecting sign may impact architectural details, historic materials, or similar elements, the sign shall be set away from the building wall so as not to affect the features.
      9. A two-dimensional fabric banner suspended perpendicular to a wall may be displayed in lieu of a projecting sign, provided the banner shall meet all of the height, size, and projection requirements for a projecting sign.
    6. Signs on architectural projections at street level. The following regulations apply to signs that are located on, attached to, or are an integral part of a projecting architectural feature located not more than 15 feet above street level. See Figure 4-20.

      Figure 4-20 — Sign on Projection

      Figure 4-20

      1. Signs may be erected on top of an architectural projection, provided the sign is comprised of dimensional letters only that do not exceed 24 inches in height. Such signs may be illuminated.
      2. Signs may be attached to the face of an architectural projection, provided the sign does not exceed a maximum thickness of 10 inches as measured from the face of the sign to the outer face of the architectural projection and that the letters do not exceed a height of 24 inches. No internal illumination is allowed.
      3. The maximum sign area for signs mounted or architectural projections shall be the same for other business identification signs identified in Tables 4-18 through 4-21 (Sign Standards by Zoning District), above.
      4. Signs may be placed below and may be supported by an architectural projection, provided the sign shall not exceed six feet in length and 16 inches in height. Internally illuminated signs shall be allowed. No exposed tubing or incandescent lamps are allowed. Signs shall not be less than eight feet above the sidewalk and shall be placed perpendicular to the face of the building.
    7. Signs on multi-frontage lots or buildings. Signs on buildings with more than one street frontage, or that face onto a driveway alley, parking area, or internal pedestrian arcade/courtyard/plaza shall be subject to the following requirements.

      1. Signs shall not be placed on a building facade that does not have frontage on a public street or alley; or on a driveway, parking area, or internal pedestrian arcade/courtyard/ plaza that is directly associated with and under the control of the subject property.
      2. The allowable number and area of signs shall be computed for each separate primary or secondary building frontage. Allowances are not transferable from one street frontage to another.
      3. When a sign is erected on the lot at the intersection of two streets or at the intersection of the primary or secondary frontages, and the sign is situated at an angle so as to be visible from both  streets, the sign shall not exceed the maximum area allowed for the longest of the primary or secondary building frontage. The area of the sign shall be deducted from the total area allowed on the property and the number of signs allowed shall be reduced accordingly.
    8. Wall signs.

      1. Signs shall be located only on a primary or secondary building frontage and shall not extend above an eave or parapet, or above or below a fascia on which they are located.
      2. Signs shall consist of individual letters only and may be either internally or externally illuminated. Cabinet signs are prohibited for use as wall signs.
      3. Electrical raceways shall be kept as small as possible, shall not extend beyond the outside edges of the sign copy, and shall be painted to match the color of the background on which they are placed.
      4. Signs shall be placed flat against the wall and shall not project from the wall more than required for normal construction purposes and in no case more than 12 inches. The Zoning Administrator may modify this requirement in special circumstances where a projection greater than 12 inches may be desirable to allow the creation of an especially creative and unique sign design.

        Figure 4-21 — Sign Location on Facade

        Figure 4-21
      5. Signs shall be located within the middle 70 percent of the building or occupancy's frontage measured from lease line to lease line. The Zoning Administrator may modify this requirement where it can be clearly demonstrated that it severely limits proper sign placement. See Figure 4-21.
      6. Signs shall not be placed to obstruct any portion of a window or cover architectural elements (e.g., cornices, transom windows, vertical piers, and similar elements). Exceptions to this requirement may be allowed in the CD zoning district if approved though the Design Review process, in compliance with Section 17.61.030.
      7. Signs attached to the sloping face of hipped/sloped roofs, mansard overhangs, or similar architectural features intended to resemble or imitate roof structures, shall require approval of a Sign Exception.
    9. Window signs, permanent and temporary.

      1. Signs shall be allowed only on windows located on the ground floor and second story of a building frontage.
      2. Signs shall be permanently painted or mounted on the inside of doors and windows except for allowed temporary signs.
      3. Signs within three feet of a storefront window shall be counted as a window sign.
      4. Window signs shall be allowed in addition to the aggregate sign area allowed for wall and projecting signs.
    10. Miscellaneous signs.

      1. Vehicle dealer, banners, flags, pennants, etc. Banners, flags, pennants, etc., for new or used vehicle dealers may be allowed if approved through a Master Sign Plan. Banners, etc., may be applied for by an association of dealerships or by individual dealers. The banners' locations shall be limited to light poles or other similar devices as specified on a site plan. An inspection schedule of the site shall be required as a condition of approval based upon the longevity of the materials used. The inspection shall be made jointly by the Zoning Enforcement staff and the applicant.
      2. Basement occupancy. A business that occupies a basement space with a direct exterior entrance from a sidewalk or alley shall be allowed one sign. The sign shall be placed near the main entrance. The maximum sign area shall be six square feet. Only external illumination is allowed.
      3. Business directory signs. Businesses that occupy spaces accessed only from an alley, arcade, courtyard, or mall or have similar limited visibility may be allowed up to two directory signs with a maximum area of six square feet each. Only external illumination is allowed. See Figures 4-22 and 4-23.

        Figure 4-22 — Freestanding Directory Sign

        Figure 4-23

        Figure 4-23 — Wall mounted Directory Sign

        Figure 4-22
      4. Flags and flagpoles (nonresidential districts). The pole height shall not exceed the allowed height of the subject zoning district. A maximum of three flags shall be allowed per development site.
      5. Theater signs. An Expressive Use Permit for a cinema or theater may authorize signs deviating from the standards of this Chapter, subject to review by the Hearing Officer. The Expressive Use Permit may allow brighter lights, marquee signs, and other features not otherwise authorized by this Chapter if the modifications are consistent with the adopted Design Review guidelines.
      6. Service station signs. In addition to all other provisions of this Chapter, the following regulations shall be applicable to service stations.

        1. A Master Sign Plan shall be approved in conjunction with the application for a Building Permit to alter, erect, move, or reconstruct any service station sign.
        2. One freestanding sign, not to exceed 150 square feet in area, and eight feet in height shall be allowed.
        3. The total area of all signs (including canopies) shall not exceed two square feet of sign area for each linear foot of street frontage. Corner lots shall use only one street frontage to determine maximum allowable sign area.
      7. Vending machine signs. Signs on vending machines that contain messages related to the contents or products provided by the machines shall be counted towards the total sign area allowed for a business if the signs are visible from a public right-of-way.
      8. Vehicle-oriented directional signs. Signs solely for the purpose of guiding vehicle traffic, and identifying hazards (e.g., clearance) on private property are covered by this Section. On-premises directional signs are limited to one double-faced sign per entrance. Each sign face shall not exceed three square feet in area and four feet in height. Letters or symbols shall not exceed five inches in height.

     17.48.115 - Standards for Noncommercial Signs

    1. Applicability. The following standards apply to noncommercial signs on Residential uses, Religious facilities, and signs in the PS district.
    2. No permit required.  A noncommercial sign shall be exempt from Building Permit review.

    3. Standards for noncommercial.

    1. Noncommercial signs shall not exceed a cumulative total of 25 square feet per residential dwelling unit, and no single sign shall exceed 16 square feet.

    2. No sign shall exceed 10 feet in height measured from existing grade and shall not be located above the edge of the roof.

    3. Noncommercial signs shall be setback a minimum setback of 5 feet from the street property line.

    4. Lighting shall meet the requirements of Section 17.48.100.D.8.  Noncommercial signs shall be maintained in conformance with Section 17.48.100.E.1.

     17.48.120 - Standards for Temporary Signs

    1. Temporary Sign Permit required. A Temporary Sign Permit, issued by the Department, shall be approved before the placement of a promotional temporary sign in CO, CD, CL, CG, and IG zoning districts as indicated in Table 4-22 (Temporary Signs), below. The Zoning Administrator may approve a Temporary Sign Permit on an annual basis, which allows the applicant to tailor the duration and the number of days of the permit to meet the particular needs of the business as long as the total number of days in a calendar year does not exceed 90 days.
    2. Number and size allowed. Temporary signs are allowed in addition to permanent signs allowed for the property. However, combinations of permanent and temporary window signs shall not cover more than 25 percent of any window.
    3. Standards for temporary signs. Table 4-22 provides standards under which temporary signs may be displayed. The sign areas allowed are in addition to the sign areas allowed for permanent signs.

      Table 4-22 — Temporary Signs

      Sign Type

      Maximum Number

      Maximum Area

      Maximum Height

      Duration

      Additional Requirements

      Promotional signs in CD, CG, CL, CO, and IG districts only.

      1 banner sign per frontage.

      1 window sign per window.

      Banner - 30 sq. ft.

      Window signs - 25% of window area.

      20 ft., or bottom of lowest floor window

      3 times per calendar year.

      30 days for each period.

      Temporary Sign Permit approval required.

      Construction signs in RS and RM districts.

      1 sign per street frontage.

      16 sq. ft. per sign. Commercial, noncommercial and temporary signs shall not exceed a total of 25 sq. ft.

      8 ft.

      Shall be removed following final inspection.

      Shall be placed only on construction site and shall not obstruct visibility at intersections and driveways.

      Construction signs in CD, CG, CL, CO, and IG districts only. 1 sign per street frontage.

      30 sq. ft. per sign.

       

      8 ft. Shall be removed following final inspection. Shall be placed only on construction site and shall not obstruct visibility at intersections and driveways.

      Future tenant signs in RS and RM districts.

      1 sign per street frontage.

      16 sq. ft. per sign. Commercial, noncommercial and temporary signs shall not exceed a total of 25 sq. ft.

      8 ft.

      Shall be removed upon first occupancy of the site.

      Shall be placed only on the property of the future tenant and shall not obstruct visibility at intersections and driveways.

      Temporary Sign Permit approval required.
      Future tenant signs in CD, CG, CL, CO, and IG districts only. 1 sign per street frontage. 30 sq. ft. per sign.

      20 ft. or bottom of lowest second floor window.

      10 ft. for freestanding.

       

      Shall be removed upon first occupancy of the site.

      Shall be placed only on the property of the future tenant and shall not obstruct visibility at intersections and driveways.

      Temporary Sign Permit approval required.

      Real estate signs for residential units and unimproved property.

      1 sign per street frontage.

      2 riders per sign.

      3 sq. ft.

      1 sq. ft. per rider.

      4 ft.

      Shall be removed at end of listing period or upon sale/lease.

       

      Real estate signs for commercial property.

      1 sign per street frontage.

      2 riders maximum.

      16 sq. ft.

      1 sq. ft. per rider

      6 ft.

      Shall be removed at end of listing period or upon sale/lease.

       

      Real estate signs for individual tenant spaces.

      1 sign per tenant space.

      2 riders maximum.

      6 sq. ft.

      1 sq. ft. per rider

      6 ft.

      Shall be removed at end of listing period or upon sale/lease.

       

      Yard sale sign.

      1 sign per street frontage.

      3 sq. ft.

      4 ft.

      2 days within a 30-day period.

      Shall be placed only on property where sale is held.

      Event sign in RS, RM and PS Districts.

      No restriction.

      4.5 sq. ft. in the RS, RM, and PS districts. In RS and RM Districts, commercial, noncommercial and temporary signs shall not exceed a total of 25 sq. ft.

      6 ft.

      Shall be removed 10 days after the event.

      If the event is location-specific, the sign shall be placed on the property where the event is to take place.

      Event sign in CD CG, CL. CO, and IG Districts. No restriction. 4.5 sq. ft. in the CD, CG, CL, CO, and IG districts. 6 ft. Shall be removed 10 days after the event. If the event is location-specific, the sign shall be placed on the property where the event is to take place.
    4. Placement of signs.

      1. Signs are allowed on private property only. Signs shall not be placed in public rights-of-way or at off-site locations.
      2. Signs may be placed only in locations where permanent signs are allowed.
      3. Signs shall not be attached to temporary structures.
    5. Illumination prohibited. Signs shall not be illuminated.
    6. Durable materials required. Signs shall be constructed of durable, rigid material suitable to their location and purpose. Only interior window signs may be made of nonrigid (e.g., paper) material.
    7. Removal of signs. Temporary signs and their components shall be promptly removed at the expiration of the Temporary Sign Permit.

    17.48.130 - Prohibited Signs

    The following signs are inconsistent with the purposes and standards of this Chapter and are prohibited in all zoning districts except where noted.

    1. Awnings that are back-lit (internally illuminated) so that the awning radiates light.
    2. Cabinet (can) signs that are mounted flush against a building wall, except for corporate logos. Cabinet signs with opaque backgrounds and illuminated letters are allowed as projecting signs only.
    3. Electronic message signs except time and/or temperature signs.
    4. Signs containing statements, words, pictures, or other representations that violate Section 311 et seq. of the Penal Code of the State.
    5. Signs that imitate an official traffic sign or signal, or contain the words "stop," "go," "slow," "caution," "danger," "warning," or similar words, excepting construction signs and barricades, and except when the words are incorporated in the permanent name of a business.
    6. Signs that advertise an activity, business, service, or product no longer conducted or sold on the premises 45 days after the discontinuance or abandonment, except signs listed on, or eligible for, the City's historic sign inventory.
    7. Signs that are oriented towards the freeway.
    8. Signs that blink, flash, or move in any manner, have any portions that move, or have the appearance of moving, except for signs listed in the historic sign inventory, clocks, time and temperature displays, public service signs, and unique/creative signs allowed through the approval of a Master Sign Plan.
    9. Balloons, lighter-than-air devices, inflatable signs and objects, except as may be allowed through a Temporary Sign Permit.
    10. Banners, pennants, ribbons, spinners, streamers, or other similar devices, except as specifically allowed through a Temporary Sign Permit.
    11. Portable, folding, or similar signs, except as allowed in Title 12 of the Municipal Code.
    12. Signs mounted on the roof of a building, including mansard roofs, and similar architectural roof-like elements.
    13. Signs that are displayed on the exterior of a building and are made of materials that are impermanent and will not stand exposure to the weather.
    14. Advertisings, banners, bills, cards, notices, placards, posters, signs, stickers, or other devices designed to attract the attention of the public that are posted or otherwise affixed upon any street, street furniture, right-of-way, public sidewalk, crosswalk, curb, lamppost, fencing, hydrant, tree, alley, telephone pole, public telephone, lighting system, or other public alarm or communication system.
    15. Off-site outdoor advertising signs (billboards).
    16. Signs erected so that any portion of its surface or supports interfere with the free use of a fire escape, exit, or standpipe, or obstruct a required door, stairway, ventilator, or window.
    17. Signs emitting audible sounds, odors, or visible matter.

    17.48.140 - Nonconforming Signs

    1. Continuation and maintenance.

      1. A legal, nonconforming sign may be continued, except as provided in Section D. below, or unless ordered discontinued, modified, or removed as a public nuisance in compliance with the Municipal Code.
      2. Routine maintenance and repairs may be performed on a nonconforming sign.
    2. Alteration and enlargement.

      1. Nonconforming signs shall not be altered, enlarged, or moved unless a Sign Exception, in compliance with Section 17.48.050 (Sign Exception), is first obtained. Standards exceeding the minimum requirements may be required by the Zoning Administrator in the conditions of approval in order to reduce the impact that the nonconforming sign may have on the surrounding properties.
      2. Nonconforming signs shall not be altered or reconstructed so as to increase the discrepancy between existing conditions and current standards for sign area, height, or setback.
      3. The sign face of an existing wall-mounted cabinet/can sign shall be allowed to be changed if the new sign face will have an opaque background with illuminated letters, numbers, or symbols. No increase in sign area shall be allowed.
      4. A sign included in the historic sign inventory, which has been destroyed by fire or other calamity, by act of God or by public enemy to an extent greater than 50 percent, may be reconstructed in a historically accurate manner. Reconstruction shall be authorized only upon determination by the Heritage Preservation Commission or Design Commission that the sign is an accurate duplication of the historic sign, based on review of photographic or other documentary evidence.
      5. Alterations and/or enlargements for the purpose of complying with Chapter 14.06 of the Municipal Code (Earthquake Hazard Reduction in Existing Unreinforced Masonry Buildings) are exempt from the requirements of this Chapter.
    3. Restoration of nonconforming signs.

      1. Whenever a nonconforming sign is involuntarily destroyed by fire or other calamity, by act of God, or by public enemy to the extent of 50 percent or less, the sign may be rebuilt and resumed; provided, a Building Permit for the restoration is issued and diligently pursued. Whenever a nonconforming sign is involuntarily destroyed by fire or other calamity, by act of God, or by public enemy to an extent greater than 50 percent, or is voluntarily razed or is required by law to be razed, the sign shall not be resumed except in full conformity with the current regulations for the zoning district in which it is located.
      2. The extent of damage or destruction shall be determined by comparing the estimated cost of restoring the sign to its condition before the damage or partial destruction and the estimated cost of duplicating the sign as it existed before the damage. Estimates for this purpose shall be reviewed and approved by the Code Enforcement Administrator or the Zoning Administrator.
    4. Elimination of nonconforming signs. Nonconforming signs listed in Table 4-23, below shall be discontinued and removed from their sites, altered to conform, or altered as prescribed to decrease the degree of nonconformity within the specified time after they become nonconforming. Additional time for abatement of the nonconformity may be granted through approval of a Variance, in compliance with Section 17.61.080.

      Table 4-23 - Removal of Nonconforming Signs

      TYPE OF SIGN TO BE REMOVED

      REQUIRED DATE OF REMOVAL

      A nonconforming on premises sign in a OS, PD, or PS zoning district

      4/1/76

      A nonconforming sign painted on a wall or affixed to or within a window

      4/1/77

      Removal or alteration of a sign having nonconforming lighting or movement

      4/1/78

      A nonconforming roof, projecting, or freestanding sign

      4/1/81

      Signs resulting in a nonconformity with maximum sign area or total number of signs per frontage

      4/1/81

    17.48.150 - Abandoned Signs

    A sign shall be removed by the owner or lessee of the premises upon which the sign is located when the business that it advertises is no longer conducted on the premises. The sign shall be removed within 45 days of the close of business. Signs listed on the City's historic sign inventory shall be exempt from this requirement.

    17.48.160 - Illegal Signs

    1. Penalties. Illegal signs shall be subject to the administrative remedies of the Municipal Code.
    2. Removal of illegal signs in the public right-of-way.

      1. The City may cause the removal of any sign that has been illegally placed in the public right-of-way without first complying with the requirements of this Chapter including abandoned signs.
      2. Signs removed in compliance with this Section shall be stored for 45 days, during which time they may be recovered by the owner upon payment to the City for costs of removal and storage.
      3. If not recovered within the 45-day period, the sign and supporting structure shall be declared abandoned and title shall vest with the City.
      4. The costs of removal and storage (up to 45 days) may be billed to the owner.
      5. If not paid, the applicable costs may be imposed as a tax lien against the subject property.

    17.48.170 - Definitions

    The following are definitions of specialized terms and phrases used in this Chapter.

    Abandoned sign. Any sign that advertises a business, lessor, owner, product service or activity that is no longer located on the premises where the sign is displayed.

    Alteration. Any change of color, construction, copy, illumination, location, position, shape, sign face, size, or supporting structure of any sign.

    Animated or moving sign. A sign that uses movement, lighting, or special materials to depict action or create a special effect to imitate movement (Prohibited).

    Area of a sign. See "Sign area."

    Awnings. Awnings are roof-like covers made of fabric (e.g., canvas) that project from the wall of a building for the purpose of shielding a doorway or window from the elements.

    Awning sign. Any sign copy or logo attached to or painted on an awning.

    Banner, flag, or pennant. Any cloth, bunting, plastic, paper, or similar nonrigid material used for advertising purposes attached to any structure, staff, pole, line, framing, or vehicle, not including official flags of the United States, the State of California, and other states of the nation, counties, municipalities, official flags of foreign nations, and nationally or internationally recognized organizations.

    Billboard. See "Outdoor advertising sign."

    Building identification sign. A sign that identifies the name of the building or its major tenant.

    Business identification sign. A sign that serves to identify only the name, address, and lawful use of the premises upon which it is located and provides no other advertisements or product identification.

    Bus or transit shelter. A small structure designed for the protection and convenience of waiting transit passengers that has a roof and usually two or three sides.

    Cabinet sign (can sign). A sign that contains all the text and/or logo symbols within a single enclosed cabinet and may or may not be illuminated. Not allowed as a wall sign.

    Changeable copy sign. A sign designed to allow changing of copy manually.

    Channel letters. Three-dimensional, individually cut letters or figures, illuminated or unilluminated, affixed to a structure.

    Commercial Sign. A sign designed to advertise a product or service.

    Contractor or construction sign. A temporary sign that states the name of the developer and contractor(s) working on the site and any related engineering, architectural, or financial firms involved with the project.

    Copy. Words, letters, numbers, figures, designs, or other symbolic representations incorporated into a sign.

    Directional sign. An on-site sign that is designed and erected solely for the purposes of directing vehicular and/or pedestrian traffic within a project.

    Directory sign. A sign listing the tenants of a multiple tenant structure or center.

    Double-faced sign. A sign constructed to display its message on the outer surfaces of two identical and opposite parallel planes.

    Edge of roof. On a pitched roof, the lowest portion of the fascia board covering the roof rafters, or if no fascia board exists, the lowest point of the roof rafters. On a flat roof, the top of the parapet wall or three feet above the roof deck, whichever is less.

    Event sign. Any temporary sign for a temporary event, including, signs for a carnival or fair, for an athletic event or competition, for a vehicle show, or for an election campaign, but not including those signs which are otherwise differentiated in Chapter.

    External illumination. The lighting of an object from a light source located a distance from the object.

    Flashing sign. A sign that contains an intermittent or sequential flashing light source. (Prohibited)

    Freestanding or pylon sign. A sign that is supported by a base structure that rests on the ground and is not supported by or attached to a building.

    Future tenant sign. A temporary sign that identifies the names of future businesses that will occupy a site or structure.

    Grand opening. A promotional activity used by newly established businesses, within two months after initial occupancy, to inform the public of their location and services available to the community. "Grand Opening" does not mean an annual or occasional promotion by a business.

    Height of sign. The vertical distance from the uppermost part of a sign to the highest elevation of the finished grade immediately below and adjoining the sign.

    Illegal sign. Any of the following:

    1. A sign erected without first obtaining a permit and complying with all regulations in effect at the time of its construction or use;
    2. An abandoned sign that has not been removed within the time period specified by this Chapter.
    3. A sign that was legally erected, but which later became nonconforming and then was damaged to the extent of 50 percent or more of its current replacement value;
    4. A sign that is a danger to the public or is unsafe; or
    5. A sign that pertains to a specific event that has not been removed within the specified time after the occurrence of the event.

    Inflatable device. An object that is blown up with air or gas.

    Internally illuminated sign. A sign whose light source is located in the interior of the sign so that light rays go through the face of the sign. This does not include a sign with a light source that is attached to the face of the sign and is perceived as a design element of the sign.

    Maintenance, routine. The painting of signs and/or the replacement of like parts of a nonstructural nature (e.g., lights, trim pieces, panels, etc.)

    Monument sign. A permanent freestanding sign where the entire supporting base of the sign is affixed to the ground and is not attached to or supported by a building.

    Multiple tenant building. A development consisting of two or more separate uses or tenancies that share either the same parcel or structure and use common access and parking facilities.

    Neon sign. Glass tube lighting in which a gas and phosphors are used in combination to create a colored light.

    Noncommercial sign. A sign designed to express a political, religious, or other ideological sentiment that does not advertise a product or service, and is also not an event sign.

    Nonconforming sign. An advertising structure or sign which was lawfully erected and maintained in compliance with the requirements in effect at the time, and which has subsequently come under new amended requirements and does not now completely comply.

    Off-Site sign. A sign identifying a use, facility, service, or product that is not located, sold, or manufactured on the same premise as the sign or which identifies a use, service, or product by a brand name which, although sold or manufactured on the premise, does not constitute the principal item for sale or manufactured on the premise. (Prohibited)

    Outdoor advertising sign (billboard). An off-premises sign that has a flat surface sign space upon which advertising may be posted, painted, or affixed, and which is primarily designed for the rental or lease of sign space for advertising not related to the use of the property upon which the sign is located (Prohibited).

    Permanent sign. A sign constructed of durable materials and intended to exist for the duration of time that the use or occupant is located on the premises.

    Primary Building frontage. That building elevation that abuts a street, alley, driveway, parking area, or pedestrian plaza, courtyard, or arcade on the same site. There shall be only one primary building frontage.

    Projecting sign. A sign, other than a wall sign, that is suspended from or supported by a structure attached to a building and projecting outward form the building.

    Promotional sign. A sign erected on a temporary basis to promote the sale of new products, new management, new hours of operation, new service, grand opening, or to promote a special sale.

    Property or street frontage. The side of a lot or development site abutting on a public street.

    Pylon sign. A permanent freestanding sign that is supported by two or more uprights, braces, poles, or similar structural elements and is not attached to or supported by a building.

    Real estate sign. A sign indicating that a property or any portion thereof is available for inspection, sale, lease, rent, or directing people to a property, but not including temporary subdivision signs.

    Rider. A small sign attached as a rider to a real estate sign that provides limited information about the property (e.g., number of bedrooms, agent's name, open house, etc.).

    Roof sign. A sign that is mounted on the roof of a building or which is wholly dependent upon a building for support and which projects above the highest point of building with a flat roof, the eave line of a building with gambrel, gable, or hip roof, or the deck line of a building with a mansard roof (Prohibited).

    Secondary building frontage. Any building frontage other than a primary building frontage.

    Sign. A device, fixture, surface, or structure of any kind, made of any material, displaying letters, numbers, words, text, illustrations, symbols, forms, patterns, colors, textures, shadows, merchandise or lights; or any other illustrative or graphic display designed, constructed, or placed on the ground, on a building, architectural projection, wall, post, or structure of any kind, in a window, or on any other object for the purpose of advertising, identifying or calling visual attention to any place, structure, firm, enterprise, profession, business, service, product, commodity, person, or activity whether located on the site, in any structure on the site or in any other location. The term "placed" includes constructing, erecting, posting, painting printing, tacking, nailing, gluing, sticking, sculpting, casting, or otherwise fastening, affixing, or making visible in any manner. The term does not include a religious symbol on a place of worship. (See Interpretation)

    Sign area. The entire area within a perimeter defined by a continuous line composed of right angles which enclose the extreme limits of lettering, logo, trademark, or other graphic representation, together with any frame or structural trim forming an integral part of the display used to differentiate the sign from the background against which it is placed.

    Temporary sign. A sign intended to be displayed for a limited period of time and capable of being viewed at a building frontage.

    Three-dimensional signs. Signs that have a depth or relief on their surface greater than six inches.

    Time and/or temperature sign. Signs that accurately display the current local time and/or temperature, usually through arrays of small electric lights. No commercial advertising or other message is allowed.

    Vehicle sign. A sign that is attached to or painted on a vehicle that is parked on or adjacent to any property, the principal purpose of which is to attract attention to a product sold or business located on the property.

    Wall sign. A sign that is attached to or painted on the exterior wall of a structure with the display surface of the sign approximately parallel to the building wall.

    Window sign. A sign posted, painted, placed, or affixed in or on a window exposed to public view. An interior sign that faces a window exposed to public view that is located within three feet of the window is considered a window sign for the purpose of calculating the total area of all window signs.

    Yard sale signs. Temporary signs used to attract attention and advertise the presence/location of a sale of personal property on a premise within a residential zoning district.

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