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March 1 - March 31, 2006

Pasadena:  One City, One Story 2006

   Discussion Toolkit

Author Biography

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A brief conversation with Octavia E. Butler

  1. Who is Octavia E. Butler? Where is she headed? Where has she been?

    Who am I? I'm a 56-year-old writer who can remember being a 10-year-old writer and who expects someday to be an 80-year-old writer. I'm comfortably asocial — a hermit living in a large city — a pessimist if I'm not careful; a student, endlessly curious; a feminist; an African American; a former Baptist; and an oil and water combination of ambition, laziness, insecurity, certainty, and drive.
  2. What have you written?

    Novels, short stories, and essays. I've had 11 novels published so far. They are Patternmaster, Mind of my Mind, Survivor, Kindred, Wild Seed, Clay's Ark, Dawn, Adulthood Rites, Imago, Parable of the Sower and Parable of the Talents. Parable of the Talents won a Nebula award as 2000. I've also had published a book of short fiction and nonfiction called Bloodchild and Other Stories. One story in this collection, "Speech Sounds," won a Hugo award as best short story of 1984. The title story, "Bloodchild," won both the 1985 Hugo and the 1984 Nebula awards as best novelette. And, speaking of awards, in 1995 I received a MacArthur Fellowship from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. In 2000, I received a lifetime achievement award in writing from PEN.
  3. What were your educational preparations for a writing career?

    I graduated from Pasadena City College in 1968 (Pasadena, California is my home town). Then I attended California State University, Los Angeles. I also took a few extension classes at UCLA. But the most valuable help I received with my writing came from two workshops. The first was the Open Door Program of the Screenwriter's Guild of America, West. I attended from 1969-1970. The second was Clarion Science Fiction Writers' Workshop which I attended in 1970.

(Source: Author's website)

Octavia E. Butler is author of many novels, including Patternmaster, Adulthood Rites, Mind of My Mind, and Parable of the Sower. She is the winner of science fiction's Nebula and Hugo awards, as well as a recipient of the MacArthur "Genius" award.

(Source: Beacon Press)

Read more about Octavia Butler on the Pasadena City College website.

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Book Summary

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Dana, a modern black woman, is celebrating her twenty-sixth birthday with her new husband when she is snatched abruptly from her home in California and transported to the antebellum South. Rufus, the white son of a plantation owner, is drowning, and Dana has been summoned to save him. Dana is drawn back again and again for Rufus, yet each time the stay grows longer and more dangerous until it is uncertain whether or not Dana's life will end, long before it has even begun.

(Source: Beacon Press Catalogue, via the Author's website)

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Study Guide

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"What tangled skeins are the genealogies of slavery!"

—Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl,
1861 (from the Introduction by Robert Crossley)

The American slave narrative is a literary form whose historical boundaries are firmly marked. While first-person narratives about oppression and exclusion will persist as long as racism persists, slave narratives ceased to be written when the last American citizen who had lived under institutionalized slavery died. The only way in which a new slave-memoir could be written is if someone were able to travel into the past, become a slave, and return to tell the story. Because the laws of physics, such as we know them, preclude traveling backwards in time, such a book would have to be a hybrid of autobiographical narrative and scientific fantasy. That is exactly the sort of book Octavia Butler imagined when she wrote Kindred, first published in 1979. Like all good works of fiction, it lies like the truth.

—from the Introduction (ix)

Discussion Questions

1. Both Kevin and Dana know that they can't change history: "We're in the middle of history. We surely can't change it." (page100); and "It's over . . . There's nothing you can do to change any of it now." (page 264). What, then, are the purposes of Dana' s travels back to the antebellum South? Why must you, the reader, experience this journey with Dana?

2. How would the story have been different with a third person narrator?

3. Many of the characters within Kindred resist classification. In what ways does Dana explode the slave stereotypes of the "house-nigger, the handerkchief-head, and the female Uncle Tom" (page 145). In what ways does she transcend them?

4. Despite Dana's conscious effort to refuse the 'mammy' role in the Weylin household, she finds herself caught within it: "I felt like Sarah, cautioning." (page 156), and others see her as the mammy: "You sound just like Sarah" (page 159). How, if at all, does Dana reconcile this behavior? How would you reconcile it?

5. "The ease. Us, the children . . . I never realized how easily people could be trained to accept slavery." This is said by Dana to Kevin when they have returned to the present and are discussing their experience in the antebellum South. To what extent, if any, do you believe racial oppression exists today?

6. How do you think Butler confronts us with issues of difference in Kindred? How does she challenge us to consider boundaries of black/white, master/slave, husband/wife, past/present? What other differences does she convolute? Do you think such dichotomies are flexible? Artificial? Useful?

7. Compare Tom Weylin and Rufus Weylin. Is Rufus an improvement or simply an alteration of his father? Where, if any, is there evidence of Dana's influence on the young Rufus in his adult character?

8. Of the slaves' attitude toward Rufus, Dana observes "Strangely, they seemed to like him, hold him in contempt, and fear him at the same time." (page 229) How is it they can feel these contradictory emotions? How would you feel toward Rufus if you were in their situation?

9. Compare Dana's 'professional' life (i.e. her work as temporary help) in the present with her life as a slave.

10. When Dana and Kevin return from the past together, she thinks to herself: "I felt as though I were losing my place here in my own time. Rufus's time was a sharper, stronger reality." (page 191) Why would the twentieth century seem less vivid to Dana than the past?

11. Dana loses her left arm as she emerges—for the last time in the novel—from the past. Why is this significant?

12. Kevin is stranded in the past five years, while Dana is there for almost one. Is there a reason why Butler felt Kevin needed to stay in the past so much longer? How have their experiences affected their relationship to each other and to the world around them?

13. A common trend in the time-travels of science fiction assumes that one should not tamper with the past, lest s/he disrupt the present. Butler's characters obviously ignore this theory and continue to invade each other's lives. How does this influence the movement of the narrative? How does this convolute the idea of 'cause and effect'?

14. Dana finds herself caught in the middle of the relationship between Rufus and Alice? Why does Rufus use Dana to get to Alice? Does Alice use Dana?

15. The needs and well-being of other residents of the plantation create a web of obligation that is difficult to navigate. Choose a specific incident; and determine who holds power over whom and assess how it affects that situation.

16. Dana states: "It was that destructive single-minded love of his. He loved me. Not the way he loved Alice, thank God. He didn't seem to want to sleep with me. But he wanted me around—someone to talk to, someone who would listen to him and care about what he said, care about it." (page 180) How does the relationship between Dana and Rufus develop? How does it change? What are the different levels of love portrayed in


17. Discuss the ways in which the title encapsulates the relationships within the novel. Is it ironic? Literal? Metaphorical? What emphasis do we place on our own kinship? How does it compare with that of the novel?

18. Do you believe that Dana and Kevin's story actually happened to them, or that they simply got caught up in the nostalgia of moving old papers and books?

19. Butler opens the novel with the conclusion of Dana's time travels. The final pages of the book, however, make up an epilogue demonstrating a, once again, linearly progressive movement of time. How does the epilogue serve to disrupt the rhythm of the narrative?

20. After returning from his years in the nineteenth-century, Kevin had attained "a slight accent" (page 190). Is this `slight' alteration symbolic of greater changes to come? How do you imagine Kevin and Dana's relationship will progress following their re-emergence into life in 1976?

(Source: Beacon Press)


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Book Club How To

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Ideas for setting up a book discussion group from the Washington Center for the Book at the Seattle Public Library

Preplanning and organizing the first meeting:
  1. Make clear what is expected of participants:
    Careful reading, active participation in selecting and discussing books, and having fun.

  2. Decide what types of books your group wants to read:
    Only fiction? Prize winners? Classics? Anything and everything? Does the book have to be available in paperback?

  3. Figure out the logistics:
    How long should the meetings be? (We find that the best discussions last between 45 and 90 minutes.) Will you meet at a library? Coffee shop? Private homes? Do reminder messages need to be sent out by email, mail, or phone?

  4. Decide how the book club will be run:
    Will you have a leader? Will the same person be in charge for each meeting, or will you rotate leaders? Some groups bring in an outside “expert” (who may need to be paid). Do you want the leader to give a brief biography of the author and a selection of reviews of the book under discussion?

  5. Choosing the books to discuss:
    Choosing what books to read is one of the hardest, most enjoyable, frustrating, and important activities the group will undertake. Members of the group should be prepared to compromise and to read outside their regular areas of interest. (Some people will drop out if the books chosen are not what they want to read; don’t worry, this is a normal occurrence.) Go with the majority opinion, but remind people that there can be a big difference between “a good read” and “a good book for a discussion.” (See next section.) Choose books well in advance (at least three months). People need to know what’s coming up so they can read ahead. In addition, you don’t want to have to spend time at each meeting deciding what to read next
What makes a good book for discussion:
People often ask what qualities make a book a good candidate for book discussion. Probably the most important criteria are that the book be well written, have an interesting plot and three-dimensional characters. Good book discussion books present the author’s view of an important truth and sometimes send a message to the reader. A good book discussion book often stays in the reader’s mind long after the book is finished and the discussion is over. These books can be read more than once, and each time the reader learns something new.

During a book discussion, what you’re really talking about is everything that the author hasn’t said – all those white spaces on the printed page. For this reason, books that are plot driven (most mysteries, westerns, romances, and science fiction/fantasy) don’t lend themselves to book discussions. In genre novels and some mainstream fiction (and often in nonfiction) the author spells out everything for the reader, so that there is little to say except, “Gee, I never knew that” or “Isn’t that interesting.” Librarians, booksellers, and friends can often supply you with suggestions of good books to discuss.

(Incidentally, this “everything that the author hasn’t said” idea is why poetry makes such a rich topic for discussion.)

See Recommended Books for Discussion,  

Reading critically:
The very best books are those that insinuate themselves into your experience: They reveal an important truth or provide a profound sense of kinship between reader and writer. Searching for, identifying, and discussing these truths deepen the reader’s appreciation of the book.

Asking questions, reading carefully, imagining yourself in the story, analyzing style and structure, and searching for personal meaning in a work of literature all enhance the work’s value and the discussion potential for your group.

  1. Make notes and mark pages as you go:
    Reading for a book discussion – whether you are the leader or simply a participant – differs somewhat from reading purely for pleasure. As you read a book in preparation for a discussion, ask questions of yourself and mark down pages you might want to refer back to. Make notes like, “Is this significant?” or “Why does the author include this?” Making notes as you go slows down your reading but saves you the time of searching out important passages later.

  2. Ask tough questions of yourself and the book:
    Obviously, asking questions of yourself as you read means you don’t know the answer yet, and sometimes you never will discover the answers. Don’t be afraid to ask hard questions because often the author is presenting difficult issues for that very purpose. Look for questions that may lead to in-depth conversations with your group and make the book more meaningful.

  3. Pay attention to the author’s message:
    As with any skill, critical reading improves with practice. Remember that a good author uses every word in a text deliberately. Try to be aware of what the author is revealing about herself and what she wants you to learn about life from her perspective.

  4. Analyze themes:
    Try to analyze the important themes of a book and to consider what premise the author started with. Imagine an author mulling over the beginnings of the story, asking himself, “what if … ” questions.

  5. Get to know the characters:
    When you meet the characters in the book, place yourself at the scene. Think of them as you do the people around you. Judge them. Think about their faults and their motives. What would it be like to interact with them? Are the tone and style of their dialogue authentic? Read portions aloud to get to know the voices of the characters.

  6. Notice the structure of the book:
    Sometimes an author uses the structure of the book to illustrate an important concept or to create a mood. Notice how the author structured the book. Are chapters prefaced by quotes? If so, how do they apply to the content of the chapters? How many narrators tell the story? Who are they? How does the sequence of events unfold to create the mood of the story? Is it written in flashbacks? Does the order the author chose make sense to you?

  7. Make comparisons to other books and authors:
    Compare the book to others by the same author or to books by other authors that have a similar theme or style. Often, themes run through an author’s works that are more fully realized by comparison. Comparing one author’s work with another’s can help you solidify your opinions, as well as define for you qualities you may otherwise miss.

Leading the discussion:

Research the author using resources such as Current Biography, Contemporary Authors, and Something About the Author. Find book reviews in Book Review Digest and Book Review Index. The Dictionary of Literary Biography gives biographical and critical material. These resources are probably available at your local library. The World Wide Web is another good source for reviews of the book, biographical information about the author, and questions for discussion.
  1. Come prepared with 10 to 15 open-ended questions. Questions that can be answered yes or no tend to cut off discussion quickly.

  2. Alternatively, ask each member of the group to come with one question. Readers will focus on different aspects of the book, and everyone will gain new insights as a result.

  3. Questions should be used to guide the discussion and keep it on track, but be ready to let the discussion flow naturally. You’ll often find that the questions you’ve prepared will come up naturally as part of the discussion.

  4. Remind participants that there are not necessarily any right answers to the questions posed.

  5. Don’t be afraid to criticize a book, but try to get the group to go beyond the “I just didn’t like it” statement. What was it about the book that made it unappealing? The style? The pacing? The characters? Has the author written other books that you liked better? Did it remind you of another book that you liked or disliked? Remember that many of the best book discussions center on books that many group members disliked.

  6. Try to keep a balance in the discussion between personal revelations and reactions and a response to the book itself. Of course, every reader responds to a book in ways that are intimately tied to his or her background, upbringing, experiences, and view of the world. A book about a senseless murder will naturally strike some sort of chord in a reader whose mother was killed. That’s interesting, but what’s more interesting is how the author chose to present the murder, or the author’s attitude toward the murderer and victim. It’s often too easy to let a group drown in reminiscences. If that’s what the whole group wants to do, that’s fine, but keep in mind that it’s not a book discussion.
Some suggestions for participants:

A good discussion depends in large part on the skills we develop as participants. Here are some suggestions (based on the New York Public Library’s book discussion program):

  1. SPEAK UP! Group discussion is like a conversation; everyone takes part in it. Each speaker responds to what the person before him said. Nobody prepares speeches; there should be a spontaneous exchange of ideas and opinions. The discussion is your chance to say what you think.

  2. LISTEN thoughtfully to others! Try to understand the other person’s point of view. Don’t accept ideas that don’t have a sound basis. Remember, there are several points of view possible on every question.

  3. BE BRIEF! Share the discussion with others. Speak for only a few minutes at a time. Make your point in as a few words as possible. Be ready to let someone else speak. A good discussion keeps everyone in the conversation.

  4. SHARE YOUR VIEWPOINT AND EXPERIENCE! Don’t expect to be called on to speak; enter into the discussion with your comments of agreement or disagreement. When you find yourself disagreeing with other people’s interpretations or opinions, say so and tell why, in a friendly way. Considering all points of view is important to group discussions.

  5. COME WITH YOUR OWN QUESTIONS IN MIND! As you read the selection, make note of the points on which you’d like to hear the comments of group members.

Sample questions:

What should you be thinking about when you read a book for discussion? What kinds of questions make for interesting discussions? These are important questions because they lead to the heart of what book groups do: read, think about, and discuss literature. You don’t have to have a background in literary criticism to be in a book group. Here is a list of some common questions to think about when reading a book for a reading group.

  1. How do the characters function in this book? Are they thin and uninteresting, or well developed, with many different facets of personality? Are certain characters more “real” than others? Why or why not?

  2. Is the protagonist sympathetic or unsympathetic? Why?

  3. What themes – motherhood, self-discovery, wilderness, etc. – recur throughout the book? How does the author use these themes? Do they work?

  4. Why do certain characters act the way they act? What motivates a character to do something that she would not normally do? Does she have an axe to grind, a political ideology, a religious belief, a psychological disorder? Is there anything that you would call “out of character”? Does the character grow over the course of the story?

  5. What types of symbolism are in this novel? What do these objects really represent? How do characters react to and with these symbolic objects?

  6. Think about the broader social issues that this book is trying to address. For example, what does the author think about anarchy versus capitalism as a means of life? How is a particular culture or subculture portrayed? Favorably? Unfavorably?

  7. How do you feel about these characters? Do their experiences fit or clash with your own experiences? How so? Which character do you identify with? Is it possible to identify with any of these characters?

  8. Where could the story go from here? What is the future of these characters’ lives? What would our lives be like if we lived in this story? Could the civilization portrayed really exist? What if?

  9. What does that character mean when he says “…”? How does the author use certain words and phrases differently than we would normally use them? Does the author make up new words? Why would he do that?

  10. How does the arrangement of the book help or detract from the ideas in the novel? Does the arrangement contribute to themes or symbols? How is the book structured? Flashbacks? From one or multiple points of view? Why do you think the author chose to write the book this way?

  11. Does this book fit into or fight against a literary genre? How does the author use [science fiction, humor, tragedy, romance] to effect in the novel? Does this book typify a regional (southern, western) novel? How?

  12. How does this book relate to other books you have read? Would this book make a good movie? Is there a film adaptation of this book? How does the film compare to the book? What is brought out or played down in the film version?

  13. Is the setting of the book important to the theme? Why? How realistic is the setting?

  14. What did the author attempt to do in the book? Was it successful?

  15. What is the author’s worldview?

  16. Were the plot and subplots believable? Were they interesting? What loose ends, if any, did the author leave?

  17. What is the great strength – or most noticeable weakness – of the book?

For more information, contact:

Washington Center for the Book
at the Seattle Public Library
800 Pike Street
Seattle, WA  98101

This guide for book discussion groups was developed by the Washington Center for the Book at the Seattle Public Library. The Washington Center for the Book is a member of the Audiences for Literature Network, made possible by the Wallace-Reader’s Digest Funds – eight leading centers dedicated to building and sustaining audiences for literature.

One City, One Story (2006) would like to thank the Washington Center for the Book for permission to use this guide.

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